These food items may be helpful adjuncts to Perfect Health Diet cooking. We have grouped them as follows:

Seafood and Seaweed

Unseasoned seaweed
  • Nori is the famous Japanese sushi seaweed
  • Taste is rather bland by itself
  • Use it to make seasoned seaweed at home: our recipe
Seasoned seaweed
  • A tasty way to add sea greens (chlorophyll, minerals) to your diet
  • Try with a pinch of rice
  • It’s cheaper and better to make your own — see our recipe
Dried Seaweed
  • Valuable source of iodine and other trace minerals
  • Wakame (sweet, soft) is good in soups
  • Dulse flakes can be used to flavor foods
  • A good source of zinc
  • 12 oysters per week eliminates need to supplement zinc
  • Watch out for bad packing oils like cottonseed oil – we’ve made that mistake
  • A good source of omega-3
  • Delicious


Green tea
  • The classic healthful drink of Asia
  • Best way to prepare: steep cold by placing about 20 leaves in a liter of filtered water in the refrigerator overnight.
  • For warm tea, heat the steeped tea in a microwave.


Sea salt
  • Useful source of trace minerals, sodium and chloride
  • Appropriate amount: 1/4 tsp/day on carb-rich diet, 1 tsp/day on very low-carb diet
Fish Sauce
  • A healthful fermented food flavoring rich in umami taste


Coconut oil
  • A healthful plant oil low in omega-6 fats
  • Rich in ketogenic medium chain triglycerides
  • Has antimicrobial properties, helpful in bowel diseases
Coconut milk and creamed coconut
  • Alternative source of coconut oil; 3 tbsp coconut milk contains 1 tbsp coconut oil
Macadamia Oil
  • Another healthful tree nut oil low in omega-6 fats
Medium chain triglycerides
  • An alternative source of ketogenic fatty acids
  • The ketogenic benefits of coconut oil in fewer calories

Rice, Noodles, & Baking Starches

  • Short grain rice clumps and is good for sushi
  • Medium grain rice is a good all purpose starch
  • Long grain Jasmine rice is suitable for Indian or southeast Asian style foods
Rice Noodles
  • Tinkyada white rice spaghetti noodles are highly recommended by Mia
  • Brown rice noodles are available in more forms, including lasagna noodles
Rice Stick Noodles
  • Pad Thai noodles are good for most cooking applications, including spaghetti
Flours and Starches
  • For PHD baking, these “safe starches” are all gluten-free
  • Cheapest option: mix your own, 2:1:1 rice flour to potato starch to tapioca starch
Flours and Starches (cont.)
  • For a more cohesive flour than the rice-potato-tapioca starch mixture, include buckwheat flour
  • Gluten Free Pantry flour is recommended by Emily
  • Yehuda gluten-free matzoh crackers are our current favorite
Crackers (cont)
  • Potato-based crackers are good
  • Chestnut is also a safe starch
  • Rice snaps have no oil


  • Natural raw honey is perhaps the most healthful of sweeteners
  • Fermented raw honey is also healthful
Sweeteners – Safe Starch Syrups
  • Rice syrup and tapioca syrup are pre-digested safe starches, broken down to sugars like dextrose, maltose, and maltodextrose
  • Advantage: they are fructose-free
Sweeteners – Powders
  • These are all fructose-free
  • Dextrose is pure glucose (Warning: derived from corn)
  • Malt contains maltose, the disaccharide of glucose (Warning: not gluten-free.)
Low-Carb Sweeteners
  • Stevia is a popular low-carb sweetener.
  • Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol with almost no calories.
  • Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that inhibits Candida but can act as a laxative.

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  1. Hello Paul,
    Is it true that the best way to cook eggs is soft-boiling them because that way more lecithin and choline are preserved? Are other methods such as scrambled eggs worse?

  2. Peter Sanders

    Hello Paul,
    Is organic pork liver a good source of copper as well? I bought some because they didn’t have beef this time.

  3. Jenna Stalvaart

    Dear Paul,
    Could you please say whether warming up bone broth before consumption to transform the jello into a liquid reduces the benefits somehow or the effects of collagen? Are we supposed to eat it in the gelatinous form? Thanks.

  4. Hello Paul,
    According to this research bone broth is not the great source of minerals it was once thought out to be, can you please comment:

  5. Hey Paul,

    I’m wanting to try your lunch bowl out – meat, rice, veggies drenched in egg yolk! Salads with meat are getting old! Would you please elaborate on how you prepare the egg yolk on this dish? I just boiled the eggs & peeled the white away & only threw the yolk in there, but I’m sure theres a better way.

    Thank you!

  6. Betty Sampson

    Hello Paul,
    Is it a good idea to blend chicken remains (bone, cartilage) into a smoothie and drink for some minerals and collagen? This way one doesn’t have to throw away anything?


  7. Dear Paul,
    Have you heard this theory that if you eat a certain food very often, your body starts to develop IgG and IgE antibodies against it? There has been some evidence that if you eat a lot of avocados they may trigger a positive on a food intolerance test, because the body is producing antibodies against it. What is the evolutionary reason for this mechanism, does it have any value?


    • Hi Stephen,

      Immunology is complex. Exposure to higher levels of antigens can increase the risk of developing antibodies, but frequent exposure can also induce tolerance. I wouldn’t avoid eating a food you like because of an assumed change in sensitivity risk.

      Best, Paul

  8. Hey Paul,
    Do you think it’s possible to meet daily copper needs by storing drinking water in a copper vessel overnight and then drinking the water?


    • Hi Molly,

      The amount of copper you get that way is going to be highly sensitive to the acidity of the water, and hard to control. I would recommend chocolate and nuts if you want to get copper from diet.

      Best, Paul

  9. Do you recommend turkey at all, or is there a reason not to eat turkey meat? I like it better than chicken and read The Perfect Health Diet, but did not see any mention of turkey. Also, what cheese would you recommend? An aged cheddar ok? Thank you. Just starting your health plan.

  10. Is it allowed the malted barley molasses,which specify are gluten free?
    Thank you.

  11. Hello,
    I am having no luck in subscribing to your newsletter. Perhaps you can help? I do not receive the part to activate my subscription. I have checked my spam (I do not have a bulk email section), but nothing there. I appreciate your suggestions. Thank you.

  12. Dear Paul,
    Can you please say whether dried fruit and vegetables are just as nutritious as their fresh counterparts? I am mostly interested in dried tomatoes and blueberries (organic, unsweetened, unprocessed). I am also wondering whether blueberries retain their anthocyanin contents and and anti-cancer effects when dried. What are your general thoughts about dried fruits and veggies?
    Thanks so much,

  13. Christine Stevens

    Hi Paul, i have an under active thyroid and my cholesterol is creeping up. I have been put on 50mcg of levothyroxine sodium 6 days a week, nothing for cholesterol yet. What foods should i avoid? Also what foods should i be eating and what supplements would help me?
    thank you for your help

  14. Dear Paul,
    I have the following two questions regarding Wakame:

    1. If eating daily Wakame 10-20g do we need to boil in water to decrease Iodine and Arsenic contents?

    2. Do we need to combine Wakame and other seaweed with goitrogens like soy/broccoli/bok choy (like the Japanese do) to help protect against excessive Iodine? (goitrogens compete with Iodine and might help prevent excessive Iodine intake).


  15. Dear Paul,
    We seem to posses many attributes of herbivores such as carbohydrate degrading enzymes in our mouth, longer guts and the need to chew food and carnivores have none of these features. Does this mean that our bodies are more similar to those of herbivores than those of carnivores?

    • Hi Asania,

      Humans are omnivores meant to eat a mix of animal and plant foods. I would not say we are closer to herbivores than carnivores; for example, the ratio of small intestine length to colon length is more similar in humans to carnivores and in gorillas to herbivores.

      Best, Paul

  16. Hello Paul,

    i was checking your website and i have a question, i know that people that have cancer tend to go to vegetarian diets and cut meet specially red meat and sugars, in your diet there is a lot of meet, organs meet and bones, which is nutritious. Is your diet recommended for people having or have had cancer?

    Also one can apply your diet with the supplements, or those are mandatory?

  17. Dear Paul,
    Should we avoid beef brain due to fear of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease?


  18. Hey Paul,
    Can you please share a healthful way to preserve meat without electricity/refrigeration? What is the best ancestral practice for this? Thanks.

  19. Dear Paul,
    Is there any truth to the claim that steaming vegetables preserves more nutrients as opposed to boiling or baking them?


  20. Hi Paul!
    Could you please say, what did babies and small children eat during ancestral times when there were no puréed foods? Do you think babies should just follow the PHD in the same way like adults? Thanks.

    • Hi James,

      It was probably some combination of late weaning and mastication of foods by mom before transferring them to the weaning child. See for example

      Yes, babies should follow the PHD. We have a recipe for a transitional baby food:

      Best, Paul

      Best, Paul

    • As a precaution, perhaps it should be clarified that *not* literally in the same way like adults. E.g., children will need less protein and more carbohydrates. And probably fewer vegetables — it seems that children’s palates prefer a much higher ratio of calories to toxins (i.e., their sensitivity to bitterness is higher) , perhaps because their bodies are more calorie-hungry relative to their appetites, and because they are more vulnerable to toxins (although this last aspect may be secondary if we are talking about domesticated vegetables, which have little to do with wild varieties). Vegetables are an excellent way to encourage the child to enjoy different tastes and textures, but promoting choking safety, of course.

      Infants may have a different emphasis on nutrients. E.g., Paul said “Generally, children need fewer supplements. There are a few exceptions, for example vitamin K2 is more needed by growing children than adults. However, even that can be provided by fermented foods such as cheese and green leafy vegetables. So a lot depends on the quality of the children’s diet, and selection of supplements to make up for what is missing.”

      Interesting also that breast milk is e.g. extremely rich in zinc and pantothenic acid, compared to other foods. As these are essential nutrients, there are only two ways for them to end up in the milk: either the mother ingests them, or the body performs a nutrient triage that either produces a temporary deficiency in the mother (feeding the baby “before the mother”) or uses up her body stores. I wonder how these things affect. But it seems sensible for the mother to favor taking a diet rich in these nutrients during lactation. B vitamins, for example, do not have a large store in our bodies.


      • A correction: I have given too much emphasis in my last paragraph to a minor curiosity. I just read that a lactating woman produces 200 to 400 calories worth of milk during lactation (depending on the month). That is not a huge amount that will greatly increase the specific nutrient needs of the mother. So the increased appetite will suffice if the mother follows a healthy diet. In other words: milk is very rich in nutrients, especially in some nutrients (such as zinc and B5) but the amount of milk the mother produces is not that high, so in absolute terms the increase in nutrients needs is mild enough that the mother does not have to favor another nutritional profile different from her normal diet. Just eat healthy and obey appetite.

  21. Dear Paul,
    Recently I’ve developed a chronic cough which manifests 4-5 hours after I’ve eaten something starchy like potatoes or bananas. I don’t think it’s GERD as I don’t feel acid buildup. When I don’t eat starchy foods the cough goes away or is minimal. Have you ever come across something like this in your research? Thank you.

    • Hi Joy,

      Probably what you are describing is due to bacterial metabolism of resistant starch in the distal ileum. The cause is typically a dysfunction of the ileocecal valve which allows bacteria from the large intestine to migrate back into the distal ileum.

      Anything that improves gut motility or immunity will help. Particular points of standard PHD advice that might be helpful include circadian rhythm entrainment, and nutrients such as vitamins A (liver), vitamin D (sunshine), choline (egg yolks), glycine (soup stocks from connective tissue), and taurine (scallops mussels or other bivalves), which can be obtained from food as indicated or supplemented.

      Another possibility is that musculoskeletal issues could be at the root of the problem. Insufficient strength or flexibility in the right hip would be the leading suspect, because that joint is responsible for most of the movement in that area of the body. A lack of strength or flexibility can overwhelm the nervous system’s ability to properly coordinate the action of nearby muscles — including not just skeletal muscles but also the musculature of the ileocecal valve.


      • Hi Eric. Super interesting and revealing. Thank you for sharing these things.

        What is the mechanism that produces the cough? Is it a reflex response of the immune system?

  22. Super interesting and revealing. Thank you for sharing these things.

    What is the mechanism that produces the cough? Is it a reflex response of the immune system?

  23. Dear Paul,
    Do you think home-grown seaweed (Nori) can be a good alternative to ocean sourced seaweed?

  24. Hello Paul,
    Does potato starch/flour have the same benefits to gut flora such as the resistant starch that forms on cooled boiled potatoes? If so does it need to prepared specially or just cooking with it will suffice?
    Thank you.

  25. Dear Paul,
    My wife is pregnant with triplets. Does she need to increase yolk and choline consumption 3x over your usual recommendation? What is a good rule of thumb to calculate nutritional needs for women that are pregnant with more than one child? Thank you.

    • Dear Stan,

      Congratulations!! You’ll be busy.

      I don’t think she needs 3x, but it will be elevated. Maybe 7-8 yolks per day? Just a guess but should be in the ballpark. More is OK.

      In general, she should eat a balanced natural whole foods diet like PHD to appetite. If she craves a food, eat it. Circadian rhythm entrainment is important.

      Best, Paul

  26. Hello Paul,

    I believe I have gotten carried away with consuming too much fat, 2-3 tbsps each of coconut/MCT oil & butter/ghee most days, 3 egg yolks, & some nuts too. Probably closer to the 3 tbsp each most days. I think that’s too much & it could be the cause of issues the last year with pale, clay colored loose stools. Also high total cholesterol (260), though my triglycerides are 47 & HDL 88 which is outstanding. I’m trying to find in your book where you say how much total fat in a day. I was thinking 2-4 with 2 coming from coconut oil. Is this correct? Please advise.

    Thank you so much & hope you’re doing great!

    PS: You were right, my thyroid has continued to heal since discontinuing the high dose iodine several years ago & only taking your recommended 225mcg daily dose. My TSH is now 1.11 & Free T4 is 1.09. One year ago my TSH was 0.61 & my Free T4 was 0.87.

    • Hi Holly,

      Great to hear your thyroid is recovering. Cutting down on the fat sounds like it makes sense. The coconut or MCT oil is probably the hardest to handle so I would start by cutting there.

      Best, Paul

      • Hello Paul,

        Thank you! In your book you say you get all the benefits of niacin from 2 Tbsp coconut oil per day, so if I eliminate it, would I need to add a low dose niacin supplement?

        If my husband & I are eating 3 egg yolks & butter daily & eating sweet potatoes several times a week, will we get enough retinol/vitamin A, or should we be supplementing the 50,000 IU vit A retinol weekly since we haven’t been eating beef liver lately?

        Lastly, will you please offer your insights on MTHFR gene mutations & should I with a heterozygous C677T single mutation supplement with folate or in this case am I still better off with only food sources such as our 3 egg yolks & leafy greens?

        Thanks again,

      • Dear Paul,

        I recently started having tingling in my feet/neuropathy back in March. I researched what could have caused this new condition, & suspected it was my once weekly dose of B6 as I had switched within the last year to 50mg of the “active” form P5P from the regular Pyridoxine HCL that I had taken 50-100mg once weekly for years since going PHD in 2015 without issue. I discontinued it at least a month ago & haven’t taken any B6 since, & I had my MD test my Plasma Vitamin B6 a week ago & it came back high. The reference range is 2.1-21.7 ng/ml & mine is 31.5 high.

        My plan is to stay off any supplemental B6 until we retest maybe in 3 months & once it’s normal, use good old regular B6 at 50mg once weekly. Do you have any suggestions on a B6 detox perhaps some foods to avoid? In addition to no B6 supplements, I’ve been alternating charcoal & bentonite as well as sweating some each day. The bentonite since starting 2 weeks ago, is starting to help the issue with my loose stools I mentioned above. I’m thinking my fat intake is not the issue. The tingling is improving & I’m hoping will fully resolve in time.

        PS: I found my answers to my above questions in regards to folate, niacin & vit A, rereading the topics in your book. I will stay off all 3 as I’m sure I get enough A & niacin from my diet even without regular liver consumption, I eat the other items. My instinct is the MTHFR hoopla is to sell supplements & supplemental folate can cause gene issues.

        Thank you,

        • Hi Holly,

          It’s good that you tracked down the B6 issue. Going food only makes sense, and that should be enough to recover. You might make sure you have enough TCA cycle substrates by including some apple cider vinegar or lemon juice in your diet. But you shouldn’t need to do anything exceptional.

          In my mind, the MTHFR gene mutations only make you more sensitive to certain nutrient deficiencies, they are not problematic if you are well nourished. I think egg yolks, liver, and green leafy vegetables will cover your needs well.

          Best, Paul

          • Thank you so much for your response Paul. It’s been very scary & I’m greatful to have figured it out pretty early on. Back a month or more ago the tingling had progressed to my hands as well as my feet & thank the Lord, that’s mostly gone from my hands now. I will get back to regular consumption of the 2 Tbsps a day ACV & add in some more fresh lemon juice. I’m only 45. Do you think I will fully recover in time? Would you discontinue supplemental B6 indefinitely, even when/if my levels get back to the normal range? I eat plenty of grassfed beef & pastured eggs which seem to be the best food source of B6. I urge people to stay away from the P5P form of B6.
            Thanks again & God bless!

            PS: I’ve also been taking extra NAC in hopes that will help the B6 detox.

          • Hi Holly,

            There’s really no need to supplement B6, a natural whole foods diet should be sufficient, so I would stay away from it. B1, B2, B5 are the ones most safe to supplement. B3 is intriguing but a more complex story. If you want to supplement something that would mitigate a B6 deficiency, try choline. To deal with a continuing excess of B6, B12 might be helpful to balance it.

            Best, Paul

          • Hello Paul,

            I will eliminate B6 supplements indefinitely & continue B5 daily, & B1, B2 & B12 weekly. Are you considering changing your stance on B3? Is it possible a low dose nicotinic acid 50mg or less could have benefit?
            My complete labs drawn back on 5/27th show my B12 a bit high at 1083, & that’s with supplementing just 500-1000mcg sublingual methyl-b12 only once a week. Would it still be ok to take a few extra 500mcg doses, temporarily, a week to mitigate the B6 toxicity? Also, even with my single MTHFR, my folate levels are 15.90 which is I think mid range. Both my B12 & folate levels are consistent with what they usually are each year with my lab panel.
            In addition to 3 egg yolks most days, I supplement choline some too (citicholine, & am experimenting with the GPC liquid choline recently) already, so looks like I will definitely have no need for concern over B6 deficiency.

            Thank you so much!

  27. Hello Paul,

    I will eliminate B6 supplements indefinitely & continue B5 daily, & B1, B2 & B12 weekly. Are you considering changing your stance on B3? Is it possible a low dose nicotinic acid 50mg or less could have benefit?

    My complete labs drawn back on 5/27th show my B12 a bit high at 1083, & that’s with supplementing just 500-1000mcg sublingual methyl-b12 only once a week. Would it still be ok to take a few extra 500mcg doses, temporarily, a week to mitigate the B6 toxicity? Also, even with my single MTHFR, my folate levels are 15.90 which is I think mid range. Both my B12 & folate levels are consistent with what they usually are each year with my lab panel.

    In addition to 3 egg yolks most days, I supplement choline some too (citicholine, & am experimenting with the GPC liquid choline recently) already, so looks like I will definitely have no need for concern over B6 deficiency.

    Thank you so much!

  28. Dear Paul,
    What are your thoughts on eating cauliflower regularly? Thanks.

  29. Dear Paul,
    I am wondering what do you think about high-oleic sunflower oil which has pretty much the same profile like olive oil – 80% oleic acids and almost no omega-6.


  30. Dear Paul,
    Do you happen to know if resistant starch also feeds pathogenic bacteria and should be avoided by people with SIBO/IBS? Thanks.

    • Hi Rank,

      All fiber will feed pathogens if you have them. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you should avoid it. With SIBO the pathogenic bacteria have access to non-resistant starch too, so you can’t starve them, you need to improve immune function e.g. by vitamins A/D/K2 and circadian rhythm entrainment with time restricted feeding.

      Best, Paul

  31. Hey Paul,
    Looks like selectively breeding plants to optimize for certain nutrients is becoming trendy again (e.g. red broccoli with higher anthocyanin contents). Apparently this is achieved by non-GMO ways, primarily through managing the UV frequencies plants are exposed to, as well as selective breeding. Do you think these plant variations are generally safe and/or healthful? Thanks.

  32. Dear Paul,
    As you know sometimes when a person begins a new diet they might initially feel worse, possibly due to sugar or caffeine withdrawal or pathogen die-off etc. Is there a decent rule of thumb to follow to know if we are feeling bad because we are getting better or because we are getting worse?


    • Hi Milton,

      Well, there is not a simple rule. Often when you improve diet you will feel better very quickly. If you feel worse, it is usually because immune activity / inflammation has increased. This could be good or bad, maybe you have enabled your immune system to accomplish something good it couldn’t do before due to nutritional deficiencies. However, it’s more likely in most cases that you haven’t yet healed certain problems, for example gut permeability, and the dietary change is increasing immune activity. For example if you have an inflamed and permeable gut, and you eat more fiber, you may get more immune activity, even though fiber is usually beneficial.

      If you think you have a gut issue, you can focus on specific natural steps to improve it, eg circadian rhythm entrainment and eating extracellular matrix and vitamins A/D/K. Similarly there are other things you can do to minimize the negative effects of immune activity. Usually an intelligent modification of diet and lifestyle will quickly ameliorate whatever the issue is.

      Best, Paul

  33. Hi Paul,
    Can we eat canned sardines/anchovies/cod liver in brine as a source of Omega-3 or should we only opt for fresh fish for fear of fat oxidation? Thanks.

  34. Dear Paul,
    I just read that even though rice is considered gluten-free based on the definition set forth by the FDA, rice does contain a form of gluten prolamin called orzenin. Does this mean that rice is actually not gluten-free and should this be a concern? Thanks.

    • Hi Pete,

      No, they are not equivalent because orzenin is not known to cause celiac disease or other significant health issues, or to cause harmful symptoms in people with celiac disease. Not all glutens appear to have autoimmune potential; the riskiest appear to be wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), and rye (secalinin).

      I don’t think being entirely gluten-free is important for most people, in general the dose makes the poison and gluten apart from its potential autoimmune induction is not a very dangerous compound; if it is dangerous it would be in high doses.

      Best, Paul

  35. Hi Paul,
    Can gout sufferers follow the PHD? What adjustments would you recommend?

    Thank you.

    • Hi John,

      Yes, PHD is excellent for gout. I don’t think any modifications are needed, as PHD by itself optimizes liver health. You could include coconut milk in your diet which may help.

      Best, Paul

  36. Dear Paul,
    Is it true that if infants are not fed certain foods such as eggs, peanuts, wheat that are known to be allergenic then there’s a greater likelihood those children will be allergic to them when they grow up? (Presumably something to do with microbiome deficiencies or lack of training to the immune system). If so what is the best approach to resolve this risk? Many thanks.

    • Hi Paula,

      Yes, it’s true. The phenomenon is known as immune tolerance, exposure to an antigen in sufficient quantities can make us tolerant to it. That’s one reason the Covid vaccines seem to establish immune tolerance to the spike protein and diminish anti-Covid immunity.

      You can just feed a diversity of foodstuffs including common allergy-producing foods to young children from first food to the age of two. You can chop things up and mix them into food to make them more palatable, as in the PHD Baby Food recipe.

      Best, Paul

  37. Hey Paul,
    My mom, age 60, is showing very early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Do you know if there’s anything that’s helpful for that condition?


    • Hi Cheryl,

      Parkinson’s is commonly caused by some kind of toxicity in the brain so you want to promote sleep and glymphatic flow via circadian rhythm entrainment, sleeping under a weighted blanket, and sleeping on the right side if possible. A natural whole foods diet with minimal processed foods is desirable. Try to minimize exposure to environmental toxins, especially mold in the home*, but anything else that may be a toxin. A teaspoon of glycine daily (buy as a powder and mix in drinks over the course of the day) and some N-acetylcysteine may also help with detoxification.

      Parkinson’s is a little mysterious as I’m sure you know, it is rare that the precise cause can be identified. My best wishes to your mom.

      Best, Paul

      * See for example this article:

      • “sleeping on the right side if possible”

        Hi Paul,

        Why sleeping on the right side versus the left side?


        • Hi Darrin,

          Good question, and good topic for a blog post.

          Actually, switching between right side and left side might be best. Sleeping on back or stomach is worst. But it’s slightly more important to clear the dominant side of the brain, which is aided by sleeping on the right.

          Best, Paul

  38. Hi Paul,

    if you like,
    you could say something about mushrooms.

    There could be benefits by eating some, right?

    Like tremella, mu-err, etc?

    Mushrooms also tend to be classified as
    toxic or nontoxic but could it be more
    complicated? Unknown
    long time
    consumption disadvantages?



    • Hi Johannes,

      Mushrooms in some dose are likely to be quite beneficial for us. The presence of a human ergothioneine receptor indicates the importance of mushrooms.

      I’d count porcini, oyster, shiitake, and enoki among the types most likely to be beneficial.

      Best, Paul

      • Johannes Baur

        Interesting. I did knew that there are receptors, which can interact with substances in mushrooms – I have to know since I took LSD several times in my life. But for me, this doesn‘t indicate it is needed.

        I like eating nonpsychoactive mushrooms, too. Shitake is fine!
        I recently discovered the lions‘ mane which could be beneficial for clearer thinking, as some scientists suggest.



  39. Hi Paul,
    I have a question about alcohol: how much wine is healthy every day? I’d like to know the amount in l or ml every day. I drink almost always wine and one drink
    can be 1 l or 100 ml ?


  40. Hey paul..with all the new stuff coming out like the animal based diet where carb sources are primarily from you belive this to be dangerous if the fructose is coming from whole fruit and not some type of isolated fructose form.thanks in advance

  41. I adopted the Perfect Health diet a few months ago. I was sleeping better, I lost some weight and my blood pressure dropped about ten points. Unfortunately, my LDL increased considerably and my doctor now wants to put me on a statin med. Any suggestions? Thanks

    • Hi Jim,

      Congratulations on your improved sleep, weight loss, and lower blood pressure. Those are all clear wins. The issue of LDL cannot be answered without more information. I suggest reading the 13 posts in our cholesterol category,, for more information. But briefly:
      – Doctors are often under mis-impressions about what the optimal level of LDL cholesterol is. The optimal LDL level is about 140 mg/dL. Doctors often think it should be much lower. So it could be that your numbers are improving, but your doctor is inappropriately alarmed.
      – If your LDL cholesterol level is above 140 mg/dL, that generally indicates either (a) hypothyroidism or (b) some sort of small intestinal bacterial/microbial overgrowth leading to modification of LDL which is then no longer able to be taken up by the LDL receptor, leading to slower clearance by macrophages. In this case, the next step is diagnosis of the problem and proper response.

      I can give you some guidance on how to fix the problem, but first why don’t you tell me what your LDL cholesterol level is.

      Best, Paul

      • Hi Paul. This comment caught my attention as I have also received high cholesterol levels on my recent blood work – total: 290 mg/dL, LDL: 187, HDL: 91. I’m 33 and have been following PHD for about 10 years now since it has greatly helped some digestive issues. I’ve long suspected that a bacterial overgrowth is a root issue due to other lingering problems like reflux (which I’m desperate to fix). I keep my eating window within a 6-8 hour period and focus on finishing my meals in the afternoon if possible. I don’t tolerate many supplements very well – I suspect partly because of low stomach acid and they further impair my digestion. Vitamin C, glycine and taurine don’t seem to bother me. I’ve taken these for a while now but am wondering if I should continue the latter two.

        I could probably decrease my overall fiber and carbohydrate intake, but going too low on the starches (white rice and potatoes) seems to cause other issues. Do you have any other recommendations or advice that may help me out? Thank you for all that you do.


        • Hi Nathan,

          It sounds like you are doing a lot right. That LDL is high, and especially with the reflux, it is likely that the problem is in the gut. If you don’t tolerate low-carb then you may want to add additional starches, as low-carb can exacerbate certain problems (especially fungal infections). Vitamins A, D, and K2 are key for these upper digestive tract infections, as are iodine and salt and potassium and magnesium. I think vitamin C, glycine, and taurine are worthwhile in your case. Circadian rhythm entrainment and time-restricted feeding are very important, it sounds like you are doing the latter.

          I would want to see medical labs (especially thyroid panel and CBC) before saying more.

          Best, Paul

  42. Thank you Paul. I do try to get vitamin A through liver, D through sunshine, and K2 with certain foods, although I can also supplement these if it would be beneficial. Is there a max amount on the vitamin C that you would suggest?

    Additional lab results:
    Hgb A1C: 5.4%
    TSH: 0.71 mlU/L
    WBC: 3.4 K/ul
    RBC: 4.46 M/CMM
    Hemoglobin: 13.7 g/dL
    Hematocrit: 41.8%
    MCV: 93.7 fL
    MCH: 30.7 pg
    MCHC: 32.8 g/dL
    RDW-CV: 12.4%
    MPV: 10.7 fL
    Platelet: 184 K/uL
    Segmented Neutrophils: 40.4%
    Lymphocytes: 43.0%
    Monocytes: 9.0%
    Eosinophils: 6.4%
    Basophils: 1.2%
    Segmented Neutrophils#: 1374 Cells/uL
    Lymph#: 1462 Cells/uL
    Mono#: 306 Cells/uL
    EOS#: 218 Cells/uL
    Baso#: 41 Cells/uL

    The lower WBC & neutrophils were the only other flagged results. Possibly additional evidence of a gut infection? Thank you again for your time and any further advice.

  43. Dear Paul,
    The American Heart Association Epidemiology and Prevention, just published a study called “8-hour time-restricted eating linked to a 91% higher risk of cardiovascular death”, Abstract P192. Just curious if you had a chance to take a look and your thoughts on it. Thanks.

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