Centenarians live to 100; “supercentenarians” live to 110. It is a much more selective club.
There are an estimated 600 supercentenarians in the world, whereas the number of centenarians probably exceeds 600,000. There are about 100,000 centenarians in the US, 40,000 in Japan, and 8,500 in England and Wales.  Meanwhile, only about a dozen people in the world may currently be age 115 or older. The oldest person who ever lived, Jeanne Calment, reached age 122. 
As I mentioned yesterday, I have a Google Alert for centenarian stories and have been reading about them for some time. One thing I’ve found is that most centenarians don’t seem to think very much about their diets (which protects them from the food pyramid!), but supercentenarians tend to be very picky about what they eat. Supercentenarian diets come in two basic flavors:
1) Calorie-restriction and intermittent fasting.
2) High (saturated and monounsaturated) fat low-carb diets.
We present some supercentenarian stories in the diet book; here are a few. First, some fat lovers.
Jeanne Calment “ascribed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance for her age to olive oil, which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed onto her skin” . She also drank wine and ate chocolate every day. Olive oil, wine, and chocolate — you can’t get much healthier than that, as long as you get some vitamins on the side, and don’t let too much sugar in.
Gertrude Baines of Los Angeles lived to 115 on extremely healthy diet – bacon, chicken, and ice cream:
Gertrude Baines, who lived to be the world’s oldest person on a steady diet of crispy bacon, fried chicken and ice cream, died Friday at a nursing home. She was 115. 
When Edna Parker of Indiana died at age 115, Governor Mitch Daniels was impressed by her diet:
Parker especially enjoyed eggs, sausage, bacon and fried chicken. “I guess we’ll have to rethink lard,” Daniels quipped after hearing about her high-fat diet. 
The other longevity strategy is calorie restriction. Among the pioneers was Luigi Cornaro, a medieval Venetian nobleman who lived to 98, maybe over 100. Wikipedia explains:
Finding himself near death at the age of forty, Cornaro modified his eating habits on the advice of his doctors and began to adhere on a calorie restriction diet. Twelve ounces of solid food and fourteen ounces of wine was the daily allowance he allowed for himself initially. He later reduced his daily food intake to no more solid meat than an egg.
His first treatise was written when he was eighty-three, and its English translation, often referred to today under the title The Sure and Certain Method of Attaining a Long and Healthful Life, went through numerous editions. 
Intermittent fasting (say, confining food to an 8-hour window each day) is a great way to implement calorie restriction. A practitioner is Walter Breuning of Great Falls, Montana:
So what does the world’s oldest man eat? The answer is not much, at least not too much.
Walter Breuning, who turned 113 on Monday, eats just two meals a day and has done so for the past 35 years.
“I think you should push back from the table when you’re still hungry,” Breuning said.
At 5 foot 8, (“I shrunk a little,” he admitted) and 125 pounds, Breuning limits himself to a big breakfast and lunch every day and no supper….
“You get in the habit of not eating at night, and you realize how good you feel. If you could just tell people not to eat so darn much.”…
And for his birthday lunch he got his favorite: liver and onions. 
I like that: liver and onions. Nutritious and fatty. You don’t find supercentenarians eating cake on their birthdays!
Fasting, however, can be taken too far. Sogen Kato’s strategy was ill-conceived:
Tokyo’s oldest man is no longer the city’s reigning centenarian….
Officials grew suspicious earlier this year when they attempted to visit [Sogen] Kato, who was to turn 111 last month. His family refused to let anyone in to see him, and repeatedly chased welfare officials away.
Eventually returning with police, the welfare officials discovered a mummified corpse, believed to be Kato, lying on a bed in his underwear and pajamas.
He is believed to have died in 1980 at the age of 81.
Kato, born in 1899, had long been believed to be one of the world’s oldest people.
Police suspect Kato’s family — his 79-year-old daughter and two grandchildren — had hidden Kato’s death in order to keep collecting his pension. They reportedly received upwards of 9.5 million yen (about $190,000).
The family, however, has an alibi: they claim Kato had “confined himself in his room more than 30 years ago and became a living Buddha,” according to a report by Jiji Press. 
Thirty-year fasts rarely work. If you do decide to become a living Buddha, ask for some bacon, eggs, liver, wine, and chocolate with your Zen.
 Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; http://www.csmonitor.com/World/2010/0810/Supercentenarians-around-the-world/Italy; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centenarian.
 “World’s Oldest Person Dies in L.A. at 115,” MSNBC.com, Sept. 11, 2009.
 Elaine Woo, “Edna Parker dies at 115; former teacher was world’s oldest person,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 28, 2008.
 Sydne George, “Two-meal diet aids in oldest man’s longevity,” USA Today, Sept 24, 2009.
 Michael Sheridan, “Officials learn Tokyo’s oldest man, Sogen Kato, actually died 30 years ago; family kept body hidden,” New York Daily News, August 2, 2010.