This page lists our supplement recommendations with links to products at Amazon. By purchasing via links on this page, you support the blog at no cost to yourself. Thank you for supporting our work!

Supplemental Foods

We recommend eating these “supplemental foods” on a regular schedule:

  • 3 egg yolks daily, 5 yolks daily for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (for choline, folate, vitamin A)
  • A bowl of soup made from bone, joint, tendon, foot, or hoof stock, 3 days per week (for calcium, phosphorus, and collagen)
  • Fermented vegetables such as kimchi, sauerkraut, or fermented mixed vegetables (for nucleotides, probiotic bacteria, and vitamins K2 and B12), and other vegetables such as tomato, avocado, potato, sweet potato, banana, green leafy vegetables, and seaweeds such as dulse, daily (for potassium)
  • ¼ lb beef or lamb liver, weekly (copper, vitamin A, folate, choline). If you like, substitute ¼ lb chicken, duck, or goose liver weekly plus 30 g 85% dark chocolate daily
  • fish, shellfish, eggs, and kidneys, weekly (for selenium)

Daily Supplements

These are supplements we recommend be taken daily:

  • Sunshine and vitamin D3 as needed to achieve serum 25OHD of 40 ng/ml.
  • Vitamin K2 100 mcg or more
  • Magnesium 200 mg
  • Iodine 225 mcg
  • Vitamin C 1 g
  • Pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5) 500 mg
Vitamin D3
  • Seek total dose from sun, food, and supplements of 4,000 IU/day
  • Adjust to 25OHD level of 40 ng/ml (whites/Asians), 30 ng/ml (blacks)
Vitamin K2
  • Recommended dose: 100 mcg MK-7
  • Pharmacological, possibly therapeutic doses: 1000 mcg to 5 mg MK-4
  • Use chelate (e.g. glycinate) or citrate
  • Daily dose 200 mg
  • Recommended dose 225 mcg/day (one tablet)
  • Nori sheets have about 50 mcg each; 2-4 per day replaces supplements
  • Supplementation is to prevent lengthy iodine droughts
Vitamin C
  • Low dose: 500 mg – 1 g per day
  • Under stress or viral infections, more may be needed
  • Powder is least expensive way to get large doses
Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid or pantethine)
  • 500 mg per day; we suggest daily due to its extreme safety
  • Acne/skin blemishes or low energy/endurance are symptoms of deficiency

Weekly Supplements

These are supplements we recommend be taken once a week:

  • B vitamins:
    • 50 to 100 mg each of B1, B2, and B6
    • 5 mg biotin
    • 500 mcg B12
  • Zinc 50 to 100 mg
  • Boron 3 mg
B1 (thiamin)
  • 50-100 mg weekly
B2 (riboflavin)
  • 100 mg per week
  • For those who don’t take a B-50 complex
  • We recommend 50 mg to 100 mg per week
  • We recommend 5 mg once per week
  • We recommend 500 mcg to 1 mg once per week
  • Sublingual methylcobalamin is preferred
  • We recommend about 50 mg per week
  • Be sure to follow our copper recommendations as copper-zinc balance is crucial
  • The 3 mg dose can be taken one to three times per week

Prenatal Supplements

The most important prenatal supplements are:

  • Extra duck, goose, or pastured chicken liver.
  • Extra egg yolks.

The following supplements may also be helpful during pregnancy or in the months leading up to conception. Note: We do not recommend prenatal multivitamins.

  • Not necessary if you eat enough egg yolks and liver
  • But extremely important during pregnancy, and safe
Inositol plus Choline
  • Not necessary if you eat enough egg yolks and liver
  • If supplementing choline, good to mix in some inositol
Iron (optional)
  • About 30% of pregnant women develop iron deficiency anemia
  • Don’t guess, test; blood tests will indicate if you need iron supplements

Optional Supplements

These supplements may be helpful for a significant fraction of the population. Experiment to see if they help you:

  • Probiotics
  • Chromium, 200-400 mcg per week (not necessary if you cook in stainless steel pots) and (optional) vanadium, 25 mcg per week
  • Lithium 5 to 10 mg per week
  • Silicon 5 mg to 25 mg daily
  • FOR PEOPLE WHO DO NOT EAT LIVER: Copper 2 mg per day
  • FOR PEOPLE WHO DO NOT EAT LIVER: Vitamin A from cod liver oil, 50,000 IU/week
  • B-50 complex (as a substitute for individual B supplements if you prefer fewer pills
  • Molybdenum 150 mcg per week
  • Taurine 500 mg to 5000 mg per week (higher doses may be therapeutic for small intestinal or systemic infections)
  • Selenium 0 or 200 mcg per week depending on selenium content of food (if food is produced in dry, flat areas = high selenium, no supplements; rainy, well-drained areas = 200 mcg/wk)
  • Bifidobacterium spp can help with leanness and weight loss.
  • Lactobacillus spp can help with acid reflux, bloating, SIBO, prediabetes, high triglycerides
More Probiotics
  • Bifidobacterium spp can help with leanness and weight loss.
  • Lactobacillus spp can help with small intestinal issues
More Probiotics
  • VSL#3 is a good mix for inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Prescript Assist includes soil-based organisms that are a little riskier and should be taken only occasionally, not continuously, for therapeutic reasons.
  • If you don’t cook in stainless steel, we recommend 200 mcg chromium one to three times per week
  • Stainless steel pots may release 88 mcg chromium per day of use
  • Optional: vanadium 25 mcg one to two times per week
  • Best is to take 1 mg per day; 5 mg once or twice per week is next best
  • Caution: too much lithium can exacerbate hypothyroidism and increase potassium excretion
  • Up to 25 mg per day
  • Most people would benefit from more silicon
  • Seaweed is a good food source
Copper (Only If Liver Is Not Eaten)
  • Target of 2-3 mg/day can be met by eating 1/4 lb beef or lamb liver per week
  • Do not supplement copper if you eat liver
Vitamin A (Only If Liver Is Not Eaten)
  • Target of 50,000 IU/week with remaining A needs met from carotenoids (green leafy vegetables and orange plants like carrots)
  • Do not supplement vitamin A if you eat liver, unless for therapeutic reasons
Calcium (If No Mineral Water or Bone Stock)
  • PHD foods may fall short of calcium target by up to 400 mg/day
  • Standard PHD prescription is to make up the difference with bone stock and/or mineral water
  • These supplements also replace magnesium supplement; aim for 300-500 mg calcium and 150-250 mg magnesium per day
B-50 complex
  • An alternative to the other B vitamins for those who prefer to take fewer pills
  • Not recommended more than once per week due to folic acid and niacin content
  • We recommend 150 mcg to 1 mg per week
  • We recommend 500 to 1000 mg weekly for healthy persons
  • Supports production of bile salts
Vitamin E
  • Red palm oil is a good food source
  • If supplementing, take mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols

Therapeutic Supplements

These supplements are unnecessary for healthy people but may be helpful in various disease conditions.

  • Precursor to glutathione
  • Recommended dose is 500 mg
  • Can take more in cases of severe chronic infection
  • Supports collagen production, bile conjugation, and glutathione production
  • Desirable if you don’t eat daily extracellular matrix (bones, joints, tendons, skin, hooves)
  • Up to 2 teaspoons (10 g) per day
  • Supports muscle growth and preservation; especially valuable for the elderly
  • Up to 1 teaspoon (5 g) per day
  • An important sleep hormone, deficient in many brain diseases, has antimicrobial activity
  • Take 1 mg sublingually just before bedtime
  • For larger doses, combine 5 mg time-release with 1 mg sublingual
Detoxification Aids
  • These can help bind toxins and excrete them in feces, preventing them from being re-absorbed in the colon
  • Likely to be helpful for most people suffering from chronic infection or environmental mold.


These items may be helpful in implementing Perfect Health Diet and Lifestyle advice.

Pill boxes
  • Set out pills once per week, aids remembering to take them
Pill cutter
  • For cutting tablets to reduce the dose

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  1. Thank you John D. for the recommendation of
    Ener-G brand bread. I’ll give it a try.

    Udi’s does have the toxic oils in it, if even in
    a small quantity. So the Ener-G brand bread might
    be worth a try.
    I’m surprised there aren’t any potato breads.
    I know Whole Foods has a White Rice Bread but it too has some of those PUFA oils…
    So Ener-G needs a look…
    Thanks everyone…Still open to other recommendations for ready-made bread…
    I love my morning toast with butter…

    • We’ve made our own gluten-free soda bread. It tastes great. Much better than Udi’s.

      • I happen to think Udi’s Omega Flax & Fiber and Millet-Chia are terrific, taste wise. They’re sold frozen, so you have to toast them. They taste terrific toasted. If you didn’t like Udi’s, I doubt you’d like Ener G. But Ener G does have some good lower carb offerings.

    • Quite aside from the toxins there’s another problem with bread: it’s 50% carbs and therefore you reach your target carbs that much faster…

  2. Recipe for that bread?

  3. Paul after reading your website series on hashimtoos and iodine I ordered the Iordoral and started dosing low (12.5) and the next day got a nasty bromide rash (my loading test showed high bromide and 79% iodine excretion). I am hypothyroid with hashimotos. anything besides the companion supplements and sea salt loading I can do to take that rash down a notch and have you ever heard of bromide detoxing through the skin? This is FOR sure from starting iodine….thank you!!

    • Hi Carmen,

      A 12.5 mg is not low, that is a very high starting dose! Low is 225 microgram (about 1/50 the 12.5 mg), then work up slowly (doubling once per month).


      225 mcg
      450 mcg
      900 mcg
      1.5 mg (half a 3 mg)
      3 mg
      6.25 mg (half a 12.5 mg)
      12.5 mg

      That’s 7 months to reach 12.5 mg.

      For Hashimoto’s I’m not sure you want to go that high, although Mario and others do (or go higher, to 50 mg). The key thing is to avert an iodine deficiency, and to drive out bromine. This takes some time.

  4. I guess i am confused and seriously math challenged…..the iodoral is 5mg of iodine and 7.5 of iodide….for a total of 12.5 mg. I was under the understanding that one tablet was a starting dose. ok…so I have the iodine and iodide mg right just not the total dosage at ONE time?
    Thank you Paul! SUPER grateful for you adn this site!

    • Yes. We have 3 products on the iodine line of our recommended supplements page, the one on the left is 225 mcg, the one in the middle 3 mg, the Iodoral on the right is 12.5 mg.

  5. thanks..its a site I frequent already. I will go back and refresh now that my brain is not so hashimotos’ed!


    • I have never found meal plans useful as we all have individual tastes and cooking styles. Instead, my mantra has been “meat, veggies and rice” with occasional fruit mixed in. I keep things very simple.

  7. I avoid omega-6s but there is a lot of hype about linoleic acid being great lately.

    bad, right?

  8. I take your basic supplement recs plus the b vits for obesity. It’s time for me to supplement my supplement supply, please tell me what you have changed so I can get whats needed and adjust to your changes.

  9. Meat, veggies and rice with some fruit mixed in is
    a great formula…
    It’s hard to know how much of each, though I know
    it’s pretty much an equal amount on one plate and
    then you stop eating…At least that’s my translation from the book and the blog…
    Does that sound right to everyone. Easy on the
    PHD bread because it throws off the simplicity of
    the above formula and takes away carbs from that plate. Yes????

  10. What is the lithium for, Paul…
    I don’t remember seeing it before, but maybe I missed seeing it…
    Thanks, Linda

    • Hi Linda,

      The lithium is new. A small amount of lithium extends lifespan and relieves a number of health conditions. It is optional because some people get adequate lithium from water and food, and too much lithium can aggravate hypothyroidism. In general, Americans should supplement small doses if their water is treated/purified. With natural water supplementation is usually unnecessary.

  11. Thank you for posting the new supplements. I have the book on pre-order for myself and a few family members! For the chocolate: “Dark chocolate (>70%), as desired (for magnesium and zinc)”… How much Bakers (100% Cocoa) Chocolate would you recommend daily?

    • Hi BSG,

      If you follow the recommended magnesium and zinc supplements (magnesium 200 mg daily, zinc 50 mg once a week) you really don’t need the chocolate, but eating a bit of chocolate appears to be good for us. You don’t need much, a single small square will do. However, I don’t think there’s harm to eating more if it’s 100% cocoa.

  12. Someone with a whole house water filtration system
    would be advised to take a low dose of lithium
    daily? Too much lithium has an adverse effect on the thyroid. Are there any other possible side
    effects that you know of, Paul?

    • It has a wide range of effects, but the health implications are not well understood. For instance, it modulates immunity via GSK3beta inhibition. Some people taking high doses for bipolar disorder get acne. I think this may be because of hypothyroidism, but I don’t know for sure.

  13. Hi Paul,

    Is the zinc:copper ratio still 10-12:1?

    I get 4 mg/day copper from only food, includes beef liver 1/4 lb per week.

    Please help me understand how to get 40 mg/day zinc with only supplementing 50 mg/week zinc tablet? It seems I wouldn’t be even close.

    Example zinc:
    7.1 mg – 50 mg/week zinc tablet
    5.5 mg – 4 oz beef steak
    2.6 mg – 10 medium mussels
    2.0 mg – 10 medium clams
    1.0 mg – 4 oz shrimp
    1.0 mg – 4 oz scallops

    Do weekly oysters need to be included in the supplemental foods? But, then copper levels would go too high.
    12.7 mg – 1 oyster (0.6 mg copper)
    43.6 mg – 1 pacific oyster (2.1 mg copper)


  14. Hi Mark,

    We don’t argue for a zinc:copper ratio so much as for specific ranges of each. For copper we recommend 2 to 4 mg/day; you’re in that from food. For zinc it’s more like 15 to 30 mg/day. Most PHDers will probably eat around 15 mg/day from food. Taking 50 mg per week zinc will add 7 mg/day which would get most people in the middle of a healthy range.

    • That helps, thanks Paul.

      Although, I’m struggling to see how the typical PHD’er gets 15 mg zinc/day from food?

      Here’s an example day for 11.7 mg zinc, which is 20% protein as opposed to a typical PHD 15% protein which would have less zinc.

      5.5 mg – 4 oz beef steak
      1.9 mg – 3 extra large eggs
      1.0 mg – 4 oz scallops
      0.5 mg – 6.3 oz potatoes
      0.4 mg – 5 oz sweet potato
      0.6 mg – 4.5 oz rice
      0.4 mg – 1 C broccoli
      0.3 mg – 1 C kale
      0.4 mg – 0.6 C spinach, frozen
      0.5 mg – 3 oz yogurt, plain, whole milk
      0.2 mg – 1 medium banana


      • Hi Mark,

        I guess I’d say that 11.7 is around 15 and adding 7 per day will get you into the healthy range.

        I don’t think any PHDers will eat less than 8 mg/day zinc.

        Our particular diet has more shellfish. Bone broth has some zinc, and organ meats esp heart are rich in zinc. We do eat a bit more than 8 oz meat per day and eat egg yolks only to let us get more protein from meat/fish/shellfish. But your diet is good.

        If you choose to supplement extra zinc I wouldn’t do more than 15 mg/day or 50 mg twice a week.

      • Hi Paul,

        I seem to have gone astray with supplements in the past, so just trying to make sure I understand them.

        I’ve been following the 1/2-1 lb meat guidance and figured 8 oz. meat plus 3 extra large eggs put me right in the middle of the range, as opposed to the low side of meat.

        3 egg whites is only about 50 calories, so trading that for say 50 calories of steak isn’t much and might get 1 mg zinc. I have been eating just yokes more and they add nice moisture to starch. Plus, I like the idea of eating the yoke raw, even though it sort of contradicts the eat the whole animal idea. It also does remove ~20 mcg selenium, which I seem to also have a shortage of, so replacing with meat/shellfish/fish seems like a good idea. It’s amazing to me that you’re getting 350 mcg selenium from food! 😯

        The nutritional content of bone broth is a mystery to me. I’d love to see an estimated breakdown. This one only lists a few nutrients and didn’t seem favorable:

        11.7 vs. 15 does seem close, but 3.5 mg zinc is like a meal. I guess my impression is that 15 mg zinc isn’t typical, but rather advanced PHD.

        Thanks again,

        • Hi Mark,

          It could be that many people wouldn’t get 15 mg. But I think with a 7 mg/day supplement everyone will.

          Shou-Ching did our micronutrient analysis, I’ll check her numbers and see what did it.

  15. Dear Paul,

    I have your first book and am looking forward to reading the next one.

    I have a question regarding digestive enzymes. Given your views on pork consumption, do you advise against pancreatic enzymes derived from pork? I have digestive problems and have tried a couple of plant based enzymes but wondered if the pork enzymes would be more effective since they are more similar to our own. I have only come across pork so far.

    And thank you for updating the supplement list above. I wonder what you recommend for people like me who have been told to rotate foods because we are prone to developing food intolerance. 3 egg yolks a day may be problematic for me as I seem to have developed a sensitivity to eggs.

    Thank you

    • As far as I know pancreatic enzymes from pork are safe. I don’t know what purification process they use so I can’t say for sure that it will harbor no viruses, but I think the risks are low.

      Egg sensitivity is generally to proteins in the white, so I would recommend trying to separate the yolk from the white carefully and then eating the yolks cooked and in combination with other foods which should aid digestion. Taking betaine hydrochloride and maybe digestive enzymes with the meal may also help protein digestion.

      I think egg yolks are so nutritious, I would try to avoid giving them up. But do avoid the egg whites.

  16. Paul, like many others, I am confused by the supplement changes and eagerly await clarification especially about Iodine (I’ve resumed Iodoral and Selenium in the interim).

    Others have asked this question, but I don’t remember seeing your answer.

    What is an alternative to making bone broth? Would frequent use of broths such as Kitchen Basics — ingredients: Chicken stock, chicken flavor, sea salt, vegetable stocks (carrot, onion, mushroom, celery), honey, bay, thyme, pepper in conjunction with daily gelatin (Knox and others) in a smoothie be good enough if making our own broth is an unlikely event.

    Is there a downside to taking a daily Choline. Three egg yolks a day are simply too daunting.

    It’s been great seeing you back on the blog.

    • Hi erp,

      I’ll blog soon about the iodine and selenium.

      I would favor three kinds of homemade broth:
      – Bone, maybe 3x per week
      – Joint/hoof/tail (connective tissue / gelatiny)
      – Vegetable

      Of course you can combine these, as many recipes do.

      Supplementing choline is fine. If you don’t eat eggs, then do take choline supplements.

  17. Do those of us eating grass fed meats and eating butter from pastured cows need a Vit K supplement? It seems unnecessary based on prior posts.

  18. Hi.
    What about the multi mineral? Is it still recommended?

  19. Are you still recommending 2-3 brazil nuts per day as a supplemental food for selenium?

    Thanks for the updated info!

  20. Hi Paul-
    On the weekly recommendations,do our tissues store these nutrients,and therefore balance the daily intake?

  21. Hi Paul:
    I just read your new recommendations in terms of supplements.
    Why do you now not favour taking a multi-vitamin?
    Is it because there are so many ingredients, that it is hard to differentiate?

    Paul, in the vitamin company ‘MegaFoods’ line, they claim that their supplements are food based, however, some of the ingredients that are listed come from Brown Rice, and I know that you prefer white rice.

    Further, what are your views on Quercetin, MSM, and Curcumin especially to fight against potential cancer forming cells.
    Thanks Paul!

  22. Paul:
    I know you recommend organ meats, in general, as
    being health promoting. I can find liver from cows
    or chickens, but not from lamb. And other organ meats like kidney, I don’t think I’ve seen in
    markets including Whole Foods. Do you have any ideas on where to find other organ meats???
    It seems they are superior for whole food minerals. Do they provide other nutrients as well?

  23. Hi Paul:
    I just came across these findings from ‘Cochrane summaries’ on supplementation, and the fact that they may not be helpful for one to take, particularly when dealing with issues of mortality.

    Paul, check it out:

    I’m curious to get your response.

    Could the studies findings be one of the reasons why you are changing your supplementation recommendations to your readers?

  24. Hi Paul!

    Thanks for the new list — but I was wondering if manganese belongs anywhere? (i.e. supplementation or in foods)

    Also, where can I find out the roles of molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, and boron? Have you already posted on those?


  25. Hi Paul,

    Are you still recommending one lb. of wild-caught salmon per week for omega-3s? Per, that’s appx. nine grams of omega-3s. My supermarket eggs labeled “omega-3” have 225mgs per egg, so five grams a week eating three eggs a day.

    • Hi Shawn,

      I’d say 0.5 to 1 lb of cold-water marine fish per week – one day per week.

      The chickens are given flax or another ALA source, so they have the 18-carbon form of omega-3. These may not translate into longer omega-3s such as are found in fish oil if omega-6 levels are high.

      • Okay thanks.

      • Interesting Paul,

        What’s the rationale to limiting cold-water marine fish to one day per week?


        • The rationale is (1) we recommend eating 0.5 to 1 lb meat/fish per day and (2) we recommend eating 0.5 to 1 lb oily cold-water marine fish like salmon/sardines/herring per week.

          You can eat non-oily marine fish as much as you want.

        • I’m probably just reading too much into it …

          I’d say 0.5 to 1 lb of cold-water marine fish per week – one day per week.

          Had me thinking cold-water marine fish on only one day of the week, the other six days don’t eat it.

          The rationale is (1) we recommend eating 0.5 to 1 lb meat/fish per day and (2) we recommend eating 0.5 to 1 lb oily cold-water marine fish like salmon/sardines/herring per week.

          So, 0.25 lb cold-water marine 2-4 days per week.


          • Yes. In our home we eat 3/4 lb meat per day, buy it once and have 3/8 lb at dinner and 3/8 lb at lunch the next day. Shou-Ching eats a bit less.

            So for us it is one day.

  26. I bought organic dulse flakes the other day and had a question regarding iodine. I got the brand Maine Coast Sea Vegetables and on the nutrition label on the bag it lists Iodine as 330% DV (it doesnt give the actual amount, but if you take the RDA 150mcg and figure the 330%, that comes to almost 500mcg per serving, which is 1 T.).

    So, if we haven’t yet started any iodine supplements, could 1T. dulse flakes per day be enough to satisfy the daily Iodine recommendation? On the other hand, I remember many of you mentioning how Iodine levels in foods can vary widely, so maybe the 330% listed on the bag is just a good estimate?

    Also, is there less of a concern with dulse flakes than with other seaweeds (remembering back to when there was talk of not overdoing seaweeds because of other unwanted trace elements found in there). Is dulse generally safer as far as we know?

    Thank you!

  27. Paul~ I was talking to Hakala Labs and they don’t recommend the Prolamine for people with possible food sensitivities because of the corn in the product. 🙁 I now have two bottles I can’t take. what other product comes in 3mg that I can use when I work up to it? thank you!

  28. Hi. One of the new supplement recommendations is for B-50 complex, 5 mg biotin, 500 mg pantothenic acid, 500 mcg B12.

    I can’t find a B-50 complex with those specs. Most seem to have 50 mg pantothenic acid (not 500) and 50 mcg B12 (not 500).

    Is the description in your recommendations in error, or am I just not looking hard enough?


    • Steve, I think those end up being four separate supplements: the B-50 complex and THEN separately: Biotin, Pantothenic and B12.

    • Hi Steve,

      Yes, as John says those are meant to be 4 different supplements. The idea is that the biotin, pantothene, and B12 in a B-50 complex are a bit low for once a week supplementation. The other components of a B-50 are more than sufficient for once a week ingestion.

  29. Hey, why are you wanting to dose us Libertarians with Lithium, did I miss a post?! :mrgreen:

  30. Hi. Had a couple more supplement questions.

    1. Lithium Aspartate or Orotate or doesn’t matter?

    2. Silica or Silicon or doesn’t matter?

    3. I can’t find a 50-mcg table of vanadium. I see it combined with chromium, but still not in the 200 vs 50 ratio you recommend. Where can I find it?


  31. Hi Paul
    My wife has a couple of challenges when setting up a supplement profile.She has thalassemia and we monitor her ferritin levels.would giving her 1 grm. vit.C away from any iron containing food prevent the absorption properties of the C?Also about 20 yrs. ago she received the radioactive iodine treatment for her thyroid and now takes synthroid.Is it still safe to take 225 mcg. of iodine?…Thank you

    • Hi John,

      She might reduce the C to 500 mg and should definitely take it apart from meals. Yes, separating the C from meals should relieve the promotion of iron absorption.

      I think iodine should be helpful.

  32. Thank you for the updated supplements. I like the once weekly dosing recommendations. Please don’t wait for a third edition of the book before updating or tweaking as future research indicates a need. (I know it’s not easy making general recs for the entire mass)
    Question: 1) any major issue with scrambling the egg whites to eat with raw yolks? (not optimal protein compaired to other animal source?, inhibits biotin too much)
    2) 1 mg iodine small enough to not require any supplemental selenium?

    • Hi Danny,

      It’s fine to eat cooked egg whites with yolks, as long as you don’t have an egg allergy. I prefer a fattier lower protein diet with protein from meat or fish, that’s why I discard egg whites.

      Yes, I think our diet is selenium rich (seafood, beef/lamb) and so supplementation is unnecessary. But 200 mcg selenium once or twice a week is probably safe.

  33. Hi Paul,

    Looking forward to your full article! I can’t resist asking a few questions now though, but disregard them if they’ll be covered in said article.

    1) Is the Source Naturals Multi-mineral totally verboten, or would it be okay to take just one a day (the directions are for two a day)? It has 2.3mg manganese per tablet – is even that too much?

    2) Could starting some of these supplements, or various imbalances of them, cause muscle twitching in the neck and clavicle area as a side effect? I’ve been taking variously (some only briefly) iodine, K2, copper, zinc, selenium (from food), and/or a multi-mineral.

    3) I know minerals are deficient in the industrial food supply, but is that true of the B vitamins you now list as well?

    • Hi Tim,

      1) One a day is what we used to recommend, but now I think that is probably too much manganese.

      2) Electrolyte imbalances tend to cause spasms so I would look at fluid intake, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and lithium. You might try a magnesium tablet, get some calcium from bone broth a few times a week, eat plenty of vegetables esp tomatoes and potatoes.

      3) The B vitamins are in just because (a) the desire to avoid any deficiencies — the multivitamin used to fulfill that function — and (b) they are very low risk. It is not that I expect food to be inadequate, but the odds of benefits are much greater than the odds of harm.

  34. I’ve learned so much from your site. Our whole family has adopted the PHD outline (organ meats, eggs, broths, etc) while we wait for the updated PHD book to be released. We haven’t yet started with the supplements except for magnesium and we spend an hour outdoors when it’s sunny.

    Our daughter (8) had several rounds of antibiotics for parasites a couple of years ago when we lived internationally. Her temperament and energy level plummeted, but some months safter adoping your recommendations, she’s back to how she used to be. However, she still has frequent nosebleeds and dark blue/purple circles under her eyes that came right after the antibiotics.

    We were going to wait on adding supplements–especially for the children–until we read your book. In the meantime, do you have any suggestions for how to help the nosebleeds and dark circles? We tried fish oil before we found your site, and it made her nosebleeds a lot worse. Do you recommend all the same supplements, with lower dosages, or better for children to get the vitamins/minerals from food?

    After adding acidic foods (vinegar/lemon/fermented veggies) to our diet, I’ve started feeling tenderness in my throat every time I include fermented veggies or acid with a meal. An ENT doctor said it was mild reflux and suggested cutting out all acid foods (and recommended the “dropping acid” book). Have you heard of this reaction to fermented foods or vinegar? It started a couple of months after introducing sauerkraut and kimchi, along with vinegar and fish sauce to our meals.

    Thank you for your time.

    • Hi Maria,

      I’m glad your daughter is recovering. The bleeding could be a number of things, but I would start by giving her vitamin C and vitamin K2 supplements and having her eat 3 egg yolks a day – see if that helps.

      Interesting about the acid reflux. Perhaps the fermented foods have given you too much or the wrong kind of gut bacteria, or you haven’t adapted to them. I would just reduce the dose of both the ferments and the acids and see if you recover. It may also be a good idea to adopt the new supplement recommendations, B vitamins can help with acid reflux and it’s only once a week.

  35. I been gathering some amazon links for the new supplement recs, but I’m not sure the product I have chosen so far are optimal. Are some brands in general better than others? Are some supplements better absorbed than others? For example is Zinc best absorbed as “Zinc Orotate”. Some seems to claim that, I don’t know:) While Paul is busy finishing the book I was hoping we could crowd source links to the best supplements for “implementing” the new recommendation.

    Lithium: Doctor’s Best Best Lithium Orotate

    Silicon: Natural Factors, BioSil

    Vitamin B-50: Now Foods, B-50

    Biotin: NOW Foods Biotin 5000mcg

    pantothenic acid: NOW Foods Pantothenic Acid 500mg

    B12: Life Extension, B-12

    Zinc: Priority One Vitamins – Zinc Orotate 45mg

    Zinc alternativ: Nutrient Carriers Incorporated, Zinc Orotate, 60 mg:

    Chromium,vanadium: Natural Factors, Chromium & Vanadium, 125 mcg

    Molybdenum: Solgar, Chelated Molybdenum

  36. Good list Ole. I’d already done this for myself. Here’s what I found that’s additional (or an alternative):

    Silicon: Jarrow Formulas JarroSil, Activated Silicon liquid

    Boron: Life Extension Boron

    Taurine: Now Foods Taurine

    Red Palm Oil: Red Palm Oil

  37. so, i’m curious: what essential micronutrients are we NOT getting if we eat: grass fed knuckle bone broth daily, gf organ meats weekly, shellfish weekly, grass fed muscle meat daily, aged hard cheese daily, fresh fruit daily, herbal teas daily, some starch daily…???

  38. Really a great question, Darius!!!
    It would be great to get all nutrients
    from food and avoiding all supplements.
    Paul, is it possible???

    • I think it is possible if you’re physically active and play close attention to nutrient density and eat specific “supplemental foods” rich in the nutrients most likely to be deficient.

  39. What supplemental foods would be required?
    Beyond the foods outlined by Darius???

  40. Hi Paul,
    a little while back you helped me brainstorm about the reasons I don’t tolerate vitamin C supplementation (reults in dramatic exacerbation of GI-symptoms, primarily abdominal distention). I’ve since found thoughts that vitamin C can be fermented by some bacteria:

    Can you suggest other ways of satisfying the vitamin C requirements in a person who due to the above doesn’t eat fruits and very little vegetable matter, and most of that thoroughly cooked (thus probably destroying most of the vitamin C)?

    (I found the above researching why reacted in a similar way to iron supplements, and found that certain bacteria (including Clostridium sp. which according to Metametrix predominate in yours truly) thrive on iron, so iron supplementationis out, too (not that you recommend it) )


    • Hi Lilian,

      It looks like it’s rare to have gut bacteria that ferment vitamin C, but not unheard of.

      Short of ascorbate injections, I would say the thing to do is supplement low doses toward the end of meals. Then, with the food slowing down digestion, most of the vitamin C should be absorbed before reaching the colon.

      100 mg/meal might be a good dose.

      • Thank you, Paul, that strategy makes sense. I do suspect SIBO as well, but of the vitamin C-philic bugs reside further down this might just do the trick!
        Much appreciated, as always!

  41. Paul:
    Is it the starch component of the diet that
    keeps the bowels moving??
    What else in the PHD could help with

  42. Would bone broth 3x week still be recommended for someone who has the genetic predisposition for storing iron in excess? Thanks in advance for any insight about this…..John

    • Hi John,

      Yes. What I would do is simmer the bones for one hour, and discard that first broth, which will have most of the blood/iron. Subsequent broths/stocks shouldn’t be high in iron.

      Then, be sure to monitor and manage iron levels through blood donation or prescription phlebotomies.

  43. Thank you Paul

  44. Dear Paul,

    I have taken the stool test you recommended and the most significant findings are parasites, fungal infection and resistance to many anti-biotics.

    Unfortunately, for me, I also just got a urinary tract infection. My question is should I be modifying your supplement recommendations (what supplements would you recommend are essential for this)? Do you agree with taking vitamin C until bowel tolerance in these situations?

    I have not bought iodine yet as my temperatures seem okay (36.6 most mornings) but perhaps I need to boost my immune system

    And, should I be restricting protein and fasting as you mention in your book for bacterial infections for now – even though I have a fungal issue?

    Many thanks in advance!

    • Hi Amy,

      I think it would be good to take NAC and other glutathione supports. I would take vitamin C in moderation, not to bowel tolerance. It works well against viruses but some bacteria can metabolize vitamin C.

      I think iodine is helpful but start low. It’s much more important to preserve thyroid function than to add iodine.

      No, I wouldn’t restrict protein or fast, except that intermittent fasting is OK if you don’t feel like eating. Listen to your body and do what it wants.

      It’s good that you’ve gotten diagnostic testing and hopefully your doctors can help you overcome these infections.

      Best, Paul

  45. Surely if you’re eating spinach everyday you’d have enough magnesium? A small orange or some strawberries for Vitamin C?

  46. Paul n PHDers

    Most K2 supplements seem to be natti derived is that fine when i am are trying to avoid soy products ?

    What is your opinion about LL’s Magnetic Clay Nascent Iodine . Is nascent iodine better than the other supplements?

    Is there a safe digestive enzyme supplement that you recommend?

    Kindly advise


    • Hi Koki,

      Yes, natto-derived K2 is fine.

      Nascent iodine sounds fine but I wouldn’t pay extra for it. I think it’s equivalent to other forms.

      The appropriate digestive enzyme depends on your condition and what it’s supposed to do, but for most people I would recommend getting ones high in carbohydrate digesting enzymes (cellulase, hemicellulase, etc), moderate in proteases, light (or no) lipases.

      • Thanks paul
        I started taking 1g of vit lifes vit c with lemon bioflAvNoids. It seems to worsen my acid reflux. Is this possible or am I Imagining things

        • Hi Koki,

          Try one without bioflavonoids. I’ve never been able to tolerate vitamin C with rose hips. If it still happens when you take an isolated C, try taking it with a meal, or decreasing the dose.

  47. Dear Paul,

    I am trying to transition to eating PHD, but where I live I don’t have access to anyplace I can get the following foods you list in your new supplement recommendations: broth bones or joints, liver, kidneys, or shellfish.

    What supplements can I take to compensate for not having these foods in my diet?

    Best wishes,

    • Hi Candice,

      One thing I would do is contact any farmers in your area, or mail order from eg US Wellness Meats or some similar farmer’s cooperative.

      But, if you can’t do that, supplements would be:
      1) bones – calcium 200 mg/day
      2) joint material – collagen (but supplements are way too expensive)
      3) liver – copper 2 mg/day + extra egg yolks
      4) kidneys – selenium 200 mcg or 400 mcg/week
      5) shellfish – zinc 50 mg/wk, iodine 225 mcg/wk

      That should more or less cover you, but of course the food is better than the supplements.

      • Paul, thank you. I will try contacting local farmers. I have one additional question about collagen. Will taking powdered beef gelatin be a good alternative? I have a big container of that.

        • It’s fine to take it. Personally I’m less excited about the commercial products, our homemade bone and joint broths just taste so much better and I bet they’re healthier, but a lot of people have said they’ve found benefit from commercial gelatins.

          • The beef gelatin does have an unpleasant flavor. Would a tablespoon a few times a week be enough, or is it something I should take daily?

          • Try mixing it into soups. Hot water and vegetable broths (tomatoes, spinach, scallions, carrots, celery).

            It’s not strictly clear that you need it at all, so a few tablespoons a week seems fine.

          • Is there any more benefits from geting gelatin from bones vs. skin pike fish skin or more benefit from skin pike fish?

      • Hi Paul,

        This is useful to provide these type of options.

        I think folks will tend to fall into beginner, intermediate, advanced type categories where the more advanced folks are the ones regularly making bone broth and eating organs – at least that’s been my experience in the US. People I’ve talked to won’t even want to try PHD when they hear broth/organ recommendations. It may take some time for people to make those types of changes after they’ve made habits of some more basic PHD changes.

        In other words, many people will want to eat healthy and be healthy without feeling like they need to eat perfect.

        Can there be some in between options, say for calcium supplements easiest, bones hardiest, and medium would be something like X amount of more cheese or certain plant per day?

        Another example is selenium, where the supplement/kidneys are sort the easiest/hardiest and brazil nuts in the middle. Assuming brazil nuts are better than supplements, they are a food.


        • Good ideas, Mark. My concern about adding too many options is that it may sound complicated and discourage or confuse people. We will have to figure out how to communicate options better gong forward.

          • Maybe a table similar to the supplement table, with rows for nutrient and columns of good/better/best, including amounts.

          • Paul I am buy grass fed lamb kidney. How many of those a week for optimal selenium?

          • Hi Glen,

            I need two lamb kidneys per week to reach the bottom of the peak health range for selenium… But how many you will need depends on what other animal foods you eat (PHD plant foods being fairly low in selenium)…

            In a typical week, my other animal foods would be 16 oz oysters, 12 oz salmon, 8 oz scallops, 8 oz chicken liver, 21 egg yolks, and a gallon of soup stock… In a typical week, what would be your other animal foods?


  48. Hi Paul,

    I wanted to ask if you’ve heard of a supplement product known as Intramax 415? It’s made by a company called Drucker Labs. I’ve done some reading / research and the product seems top notch. All you need is 1 fluid ounce per day to get most of what you need. Just curious what you think about it. I’ve provided a link;

  49. Hi Shameer and Paul,
    Drucker Labs Intramax, sounds pretty awesome. My concern would be the processing and the expense. It looks like you have to go through your doctor to get it? It didn’t show a price. Does anyone know the cost?

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