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Supplemental Foods

We recommend eating these “supplemental foods” on a regular schedule:

  • 3 egg yolks daily, 5 yolks daily for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (for choline, folate, vitamin A)
  • A bowl of soup made from bone, joint, tendon, foot, or hoof stock, 3 days per week (for calcium, phosphorus, and collagen)
  • Fermented vegetables such as kimchi, sauerkraut, or fermented mixed vegetables (for nucleotides, probiotic bacteria, and vitamins K2 and B12), and other vegetables such as tomato, avocado, potato, sweet potato, banana, green leafy vegetables, and seaweeds such as dulse, daily (for potassium)
  • ¼ lb beef or lamb liver, weekly (copper, vitamin A, folate, choline). If you like, substitute ¼ lb chicken, duck, or goose liver weekly plus 30 g 85% dark chocolate daily
  • fish, shellfish, eggs, and kidneys, weekly (for selenium)

Daily Supplements

These are supplements we recommend be taken daily:

  • Sunshine and vitamin D3 as needed to achieve serum 25OHD of 40 ng/ml.
  • Vitamin K2 100 mcg or more
  • Magnesium 200 mg
  • Iodine 225 mcg
  • Vitamin C 1 g
  • Pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5) 500 mg
Vitamin D3
  • Seek total dose from sun, food, and supplements of 4,000 IU/day
  • Adjust to 25OHD level of 40 ng/ml (whites/Asians), 30 ng/ml (blacks)
Vitamin K2
  • Recommended dose: 100 mcg MK-7
  • Pharmacological, possibly therapeutic doses: 1000 mcg to 5 mg MK-4
  • Use chelate (e.g. glycinate) or citrate
  • Daily dose 200 mg
  • Recommended dose 225 mcg/day (one tablet)
  • Nori sheets have about 50 mcg each; 2-4 per day replaces supplements
  • Supplementation is to prevent lengthy iodine droughts
Vitamin C
  • Low dose: 500 mg – 1 g per day
  • Under stress or viral infections, more may be needed
  • Powder is least expensive way to get large doses
Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid or pantethine)
  • 500 mg per day; we suggest daily due to its extreme safety
  • Acne/skin blemishes or low energy/endurance are symptoms of deficiency

Weekly Supplements

These are supplements we recommend be taken once a week:

  • B vitamins:
    • 50 to 100 mg each of B1, B2, and B6
    • 5 mg biotin
    • 500 mcg B12
  • Zinc 50 to 100 mg
  • Boron 3 mg
B1 (thiamin)
  • 50-100 mg weekly
B2 (riboflavin)
  • 100 mg per week
  • For those who don’t take a B-50 complex
  • We recommend 50 mg to 100 mg per week
  • We recommend 5 mg once per week
  • We recommend 500 mcg to 1 mg once per week
  • Sublingual methylcobalamin is preferred
  • We recommend about 50 mg per week
  • Be sure to follow our copper recommendations as copper-zinc balance is crucial
  • The 3 mg dose can be taken one to three times per week

Prenatal Supplements

The most important prenatal supplements are:

  • Extra duck, goose, or pastured chicken liver.
  • Extra egg yolks.

The following supplements may also be helpful during pregnancy or in the months leading up to conception. Note: We do not recommend prenatal multivitamins.

  • Not necessary if you eat enough egg yolks and liver
  • But extremely important during pregnancy, and safe
Inositol plus Choline
  • Not necessary if you eat enough egg yolks and liver
  • If supplementing choline, good to mix in some inositol
Iron (optional)
  • About 30% of pregnant women develop iron deficiency anemia
  • Don’t guess, test; blood tests will indicate if you need iron supplements

Optional Supplements

These supplements may be helpful for a significant fraction of the population. Experiment to see if they help you:

  • Probiotics
  • Chromium, 200-400 mcg per week (not necessary if you cook in stainless steel pots) and (optional) vanadium, 25 mcg per week
  • Lithium 5 to 10 mg per week
  • Silicon 5 mg to 25 mg daily
  • FOR PEOPLE WHO DO NOT EAT LIVER: Copper 2 mg per day
  • FOR PEOPLE WHO DO NOT EAT LIVER: Vitamin A from cod liver oil, 50,000 IU/week
  • B-50 complex (as a substitute for individual B supplements if you prefer fewer pills
  • Molybdenum 150 mcg per week
  • Taurine 500 mg to 5000 mg per week (higher doses may be therapeutic for small intestinal or systemic infections)
  • Selenium 0 or 200 mcg per week depending on selenium content of food (if food is produced in dry, flat areas = high selenium, no supplements; rainy, well-drained areas = 200 mcg/wk)
  • Bifidobacterium spp can help with leanness and weight loss.
  • Lactobacillus spp can help with acid reflux, bloating, SIBO, prediabetes, high triglycerides
More Probiotics
  • Bifidobacterium spp can help with leanness and weight loss.
  • Lactobacillus spp can help with small intestinal issues
More Probiotics
  • VSL#3 is a good mix for inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Prescript Assist includes soil-based organisms that are a little riskier and should be taken only occasionally, not continuously, for therapeutic reasons.
  • If you don’t cook in stainless steel, we recommend 200 mcg chromium one to three times per week
  • Stainless steel pots may release 88 mcg chromium per day of use
  • Optional: vanadium 25 mcg one to two times per week
  • Best is to take 1 mg per day; 5 mg once or twice per week is next best
  • Caution: too much lithium can exacerbate hypothyroidism and increase potassium excretion
  • Up to 25 mg per day
  • Most people would benefit from more silicon
  • Seaweed is a good food source
Copper (Only If Liver Is Not Eaten)
  • Target of 2-3 mg/day can be met by eating 1/4 lb beef or lamb liver per week
  • Do not supplement copper if you eat liver
Vitamin A (Only If Liver Is Not Eaten)
  • Target of 50,000 IU/week with remaining A needs met from carotenoids (green leafy vegetables and orange plants like carrots)
  • Do not supplement vitamin A if you eat liver, unless for therapeutic reasons
Calcium (If No Mineral Water or Bone Stock)
  • PHD foods may fall short of calcium target by up to 400 mg/day
  • Standard PHD prescription is to make up the difference with bone stock and/or mineral water
  • These supplements also replace magnesium supplement; aim for 300-500 mg calcium and 150-250 mg magnesium per day
B-50 complex
  • An alternative to the other B vitamins for those who prefer to take fewer pills
  • Not recommended more than once per week due to folic acid and niacin content
  • We recommend 150 mcg to 1 mg per week
  • We recommend 500 to 1000 mg weekly for healthy persons
  • Supports production of bile salts
Vitamin E
  • Red palm oil is a good food source
  • If supplementing, take mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols

Therapeutic Supplements

These supplements are unnecessary for healthy people but may be helpful in various disease conditions.

  • Precursor to glutathione
  • Recommended dose is 500 mg
  • Can take more in cases of severe chronic infection
  • Supports collagen production, bile conjugation, and glutathione production
  • Desirable if you don’t eat daily extracellular matrix (bones, joints, tendons, skin, hooves)
  • Up to 2 teaspoons (10 g) per day
  • Supports muscle growth and preservation; especially valuable for the elderly
  • Up to 1 teaspoon (5 g) per day
  • An important sleep hormone, deficient in many brain diseases, has antimicrobial activity
  • Take 1 mg sublingually just before bedtime
  • For larger doses, combine 5 mg time-release with 1 mg sublingual
Detoxification Aids
  • These can help bind toxins and excrete them in feces, preventing them from being re-absorbed in the colon
  • Likely to be helpful for most people suffering from chronic infection or environmental mold.


These items may be helpful in implementing Perfect Health Diet and Lifestyle advice.

Pill boxes
  • Set out pills once per week, aids remembering to take them
Pill cutter
  • For cutting tablets to reduce the dose

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Leave a comment ?


  1. What about supplementation of Calcium during pregrancy?

    • Hi Gloria,

      Yes, it’s good to supplement some calcium during pregnancy. 500 to 1000 mg/day depending on diet.

      Best, Paul

      • Thank you Paul,
        In your book for an average person you recomend calcium intake of around 700mg/d and no supplements.
        How much calcium should a pregnant woman strive for? 1000mg? more?
        Some sources claim that pregnat women should take 1500-2000mg/d. Isn’t this too high>
        Thank you,

  2. Paul,

    Very grateful for your work. My wife and I are continuing our tradition of giving a copy of PHD as a wedding gift to everyone we know who gets married, with some success.

    Two questions:

    1. We have a four year old who is a picky eater, and doesn’t like salmon but does like eggs. Are eggs that claim omega-3 such as “Egglands Best” a reasonable way to get him omega-3, in your view?

    2. Do you think taking a teaspoon of psyllium powder in water in the morning would have an impact on intermittent fasting/feeding window?

    Thank you.

    • Hi David,

      Thank you for your support.

      Re the omega-3 eggs, each egg contains about 400 mg omega-3, which translates to 3 calories; all the omega-3 is in the yolk; a four year old may eat 1000 calories per day; so you would need 3 egg yolks per day to get an adequate (~1% of energy) omega-3 intake. That’s the PHD recommended intake of egg yolks, so I’d say, yes, it’s a reasonable way to get him omega-3.

      I do think the psyllium impacts the feeding window — certainly for the gut microbiome it extends the window strongly, and thus will reduce the number of mucin-feeding bacteria like Akkermansia. For you you’ll get about 1.5 calories per gram from short-chain fatty acids generated by gut bacteria, a teaspoon is about 5 g, so about 7 calories — which is minimal, equivalent to shortening the fast by 4 minutes. So it’s more a question of the impact on the microbiome. I would think the key is good circadian rhythms, so I would suggest taking it toward the end of your fast.

      Best, Paul

  3. Hi Paul,

    Thanks for the information. I bought your book almost five years ago already and it’s still an invaluable resource.

    I just got pregnant and I was wondering if choline gets damaged by heat. I used to eat my egg yolks raw with smoothies, but now I’m not supposed to eat anything raw.


  4. Hi Paul,
    I noticed that iodine is recommended daily, as I’ve seen elsewhere… is it really necessary to replenish stores each day or can a weeks worth be broken up into larger doses – taken maybe 3 or 4 times a week – and be equally beneficial?
    [I would imagine most dietary minerals, if not all, are consumed in the form of water soluble salts and as such are excreted multiple times a day in sweat, urine, etc., therefore requiring most/ all minerals (and water-soluble vitamins) to be replenished daily. That’s only my best educated guess though.]

  5. With weekly supplementation of zinc is their any caution to taking say above suggested 100 mg in one day?
    I know alot of the studies use weekly dose for zinc treatment, maybe due to the long half life. I was under the impression that your body does not store zinc and needs to be replenished daily.

    Any clarification would be appreciated.


    • Zinc like other minerals is stored in the many molecules that use it, primarily in zinc-copper superoxide dismutase but many others. So no, you don’t need to take it daily.

      I would not recommend taking more than 100 mg/week, although there might be circumstances in which it could be beneficial, it wouldn’t be physiologically normal.

      • Thank you very much.
        Makes sense now. Never realized how much Zinc is in a can of oysters. Like 80mg…so i guess tot this point in time i have never had any issues.
        Again thank you

  6. Hi Paul,

    I’ve just come to your excellent site , and am reading your book. Fantastic resources, thank you for your work. Just one question: what do you think of Glutathione supplementation? You mention the work of Art De Vany a few times and I’m sure you’re aware that he’s a strong advocate. It would be great to get your thoughts on this.

  7. Hi Paul ,

    I’m a healthy 43 year old female, have been following your diet and supplements most of the time ( except the salmon and beef recommendation , just starting in that recently )
    I have a small problem. I tried beef liver, but it was too strong in taste. And I absolutely love chicken liver:) Would 1/4 lb of chicken liver weekly , plus copper supplement 2mg daily help with my constant fatigue I’ve been experiencing the last 2-3 weeks? Or do I have to have the beef liver? Is it the iron or the copper in the beef liver that helps with fatigue? Since I’ve been eating mainly chicken so far , I’ve been taking an iron supplement daily but it doesn’t seem to help with my fatigue at all. Otherwise I’m pretty much following your protocol , so I’m wondering how I could overcome this ongoing fatigue .

    Thank you ,

    • Hi Gabriella,

      The copper supplement plus chicken liver is a good substitute for the beef liver.

      Copper supplements can sometimes heal an iron deficiency anemia. So do supplement the copper. Be sure to balance it with zinc, and supplement extra vitamin C.

      In addition to iron deficiency, the most common causes of fatigue include hypothyroidism and inflammation. So make sure any hypothyroidism is being treated, and support immunity via circadian rhythm entrainment, intermittent fasting, vitamin A, vitamin D, N-acetylcysteine and glycine, vitamin C, zinc and copper.

      Best, Paul

  8. Thank you so much Paul! I really appreciate your thorough advice!

  9. Hi Paul,

    I just bought your book two days ago, and it is fantastic. One question: I have a severe tree nut and fish allergy (shellfish is ok for me). I am not able to get the Omega’s from a fish source. What could I substitute so that I get the required Omega 3/6’s in my diet?

    Thank you so much!


  10. Hello Paul,
    I used to have high TSH (9+ mIU/L) with normal thyroid hormones so I supplemented iodine for a while (First month 200mcg/day, second month 400mcg/day).

    After two months I tested my thyroid again and I got lower but still high TSH (4.540 mIU/l), high FT4 (23.27 pmol/l), but normal FT3 (4.49 pmol/l).

    So basically a FT4-only hyperthyroidism. What do you think about this? Does it look like the kind of hyperthyroidism caused by too much iodine or would you say it’s something else?


  11. Calcium Bentonite Clay?
    I have searched your book and blog but find no information about how to use this highly recommended product externally for masks and foot soaks or internally as an aid for pulling toxins.

    Searching the internet, I have found 1-2tsps in 8 ounces of purified water an hour before eating food to 1:8 ratio of clay to water. That is a wide spectrum.

    For us newbies on the PHD, would you say a few words about how you would recommend its use?

    Thank you!

  12. Paul, do you have any tips to gain size/weight in facial areas?

  13. Hi Paul,

    I recently had some food samples analyzed for vitamin K2 content — goose liver, duck liver, and duck egg yolks — and I thought you might be interested in the results.

    As you can see from the data file which I emailed you, the K2 content of goose liver was an order of magnitude lower in the sample I had measured than the figure given in (the study quoted everywhere in support of the claim that goose liver is an amazing source of K2)… Evidently, variability of vitamin K2 in goose liver is huge, and so it’s not a reliable food source. Duck liver was even lower.

    On the other hand, duck egg yolks had about 1 mcg of K2 per gram of weight, and appear to be a reliable source based on close agreement between three samples (I measured one sample from Massachusetts, one from Oregon, and one from California). For context, that’s more than triple the amount per unit weight in chicken egg yolks, based on measurements by the same lab commissioned by the Weston Price Foundation — c.f. (which also show close agreement between three chicken egg yolk samples).

    That means two duck egg yolks provides about 50 mcg of K2 (versus 15 mcg for three chicken egg yolks). Also, half the polyunsaturated fat, double the cholesterol, and slightly more choline (c.f. and

    If duck egg yolks are eaten instead of chicken egg yolks, in addition to an ounce or two of aged cheese (which would probably bring K2 intake up to around 75 or 100 mcg per day), would supplemental K2 still be advised? (Also: Are you aware of any reason not to favor duck egg yolks over chicken egg yolks?)


    • Hi Eric,

      No, at those levels from food, I wouldn’t see any benefit to supplementing for an adult. Maybe for a fast-growing child, although if they ate plenty of green leafy vegetables and cheese/fermented foods, unnecessary there too.

      Great work, I’m impressed that you had the measurements done! I wonder how much of the duck egg vs chicken egg difference is due to a more natural diet of the ducks.

      Best, Paul

      • Hi Paul,


        The WPF chicken egg yolk data included both conventionally-raised and pasture-raised eggs. The MK-4 content was higher in the pasture-raised ones, but only by about 10%. The pasture-raised eggs also contained longer-chain menaquinones, which were entirely absent in the conventionally-raised eggs, so total K2 content differed by about 20% — much smaller than the difference between the chicken and duck eggs!

        So my guess would be that the MK-4 —
        which birds can synthesize, and which accounts for most of the K2 in egg yolks of any kind — is mostly genetically determined, with perhaps some variation from diet.

        Birds can’t synthesize longer-chain menaquinones, so that presumably reflect diet alone.

        I’ve never seen conventionally-raised duck eggs; all the duck eggs I found advertised “naturally raised” or some variant thereof, and all duck egg yolk samples contained longer-chain menaquinones.


  14. What about BCAA’s instead of Creatine for muscle mass?

    Thank you!

  15. Your recommendation of vitamin C at 1MG…is that better to take in one dose or split doses such as 500 x2

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