Multiple Sclerosis: A Curable Infectious Disease?

For more than a century many strands of evidence have pointed toward an infectious cause for MS.

Pierre Marie, lecturing in 1892, said that “the causative agent in multiple sclerosis is manifestly of an infective nature.  What is its precise nature?  No one so far has been able to isolate it but one day this goal will be achieved.” [1]

For a long time, little progress was made. In the 1950s, however, Paul Le Gac noticed similarities between multiple sclerosis and symptoms developed in the aftermath of diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus caused by Rickettsia bacteria. [2]  Rickettsia are obligate intracellular parasites that cannot survive outside a host. By 1966, Le Gac recognized that the Chlamydiae, another order of intracellular parasitic bacteria, might be responsible for MS. [3]

Le Gac tried treating multiple sclerosis with tetracyclines and other broad spectrum antibiotics, and reported a number of cures. Here is one of his case studies:

Mr. Maurice Q., a Belgian citizen, 46 years of age. Multiple sclerosis was manifested in 1955 by transient retrobulbar neuritis. In 1956 he became bedridden. As of November 1961, [he had been] totally quadriplegic for three years….

Antibiotic treatment and alginated baths were followed, within a few months, by a spectacular improvement.

In May 1962, Mr. Q. was walking normally. He was able to discard all assistive devices, and soon afterward went back to work as a freight–truck driver. [3]

However, Le Gac’s work was criticized on the ground that MS patients generally lacked antibodies to Rickettsia, not all MS patients responded to Le Gac’s treatment, and no controlled clinical trials had been conducted. [4]

Meanwhile, epidemiological evidence was accruing in support of the idea of an infectious origin.  For instance, MS was virtually unknown in the Faeroe Islands until British troops were stationed there in 1940, after which an epidemic of MS occurred.  Nearly all the MS cases diagnosed between 1943 and 1960 were in people who had resided as children in the towns where the British were stationed. [5] In general, MS risk is increased in populations with low vitamin D and poor hygiene; both associations are suggestive of an infectious origin, since vitamin D is so crucial for intracellular immunity. [6]

Technological advances in molecular biology in the 1980s and 1990s finally made possible a robust investigation into microbial causes. A key invention was real-time PCR, which was honored by the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1993. This technique permitted sensitive detection of bacterial DNA from tissue or fluid samples, and enabled for the first time reliable detection (and species identification) of intracellular bacteria. PCR entered research use in the 1990s.

Some scientists at Vanderbilt, who had previously been studying the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic fatigue, discovered its presence in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. [7] PCR showed that DNA from C. pneumoniae was present in the cerebrospinal fluid of up to 97% of MS patients. [8] In 2002, the Vanderbilt scientists patented a combination-antibiotic therapy for C. pneumoniae [9]. They established a clinic at Vanderbilt specializing in antibiotic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and MS.

In medicine, some of the most important progress has been made by doctors and scientists trying to cure their own conditions. The combination of high motivation, intimate familiarity with the disease, and technical expertise is hard to beat. For this reason, I think the story of Dr. David Wheldon, a clinical microbiologist from Britain, and his wife Sarah is significant in the history of MS.  I will abridge their story from various accounts they have published. [10, 11, 12, 13]

In 1999, the Wheldons contracted a respiratory infection which produced a mild pneumonia. In its aftermath, Sarah developed asthma and David developed a myalgia which prevented him from turning his head. By 2003, Sarah had developed full-blown multiple sclerosis: she could not walk unaided, her speech was slurred, she was numb from the waist down, and an MRI revealed numerous white-matter brain lesions. 

Dr. Wheldon searched the literature and found the Vanderbilt work.  He gave his wife doxycycline and roxithromycin, both effective anti-chlamydial agents.  He writes:

What followed was dramatic. For a few days, Sarah had a Herxheimer-like reaction, with a fever and night-sweats. After this, her mental fog and cognitive deficits speedily began to vanish. Slowly, the disease was rolled back … [12]

Sarah improved from a grade of 7 on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) to a grade of 2, and remains at that grade seven years later. The same antibiotics cured David’s myalgia.

Dr. Wheldon and Dr. Stratton of the Vanderbilt group have since collaborated on papers summarizing the evidence for C. pneumoniae as the causal agent of MS.  [14] Dr. Wheldon now treats MS patients, and he and his wife also helped popularize a site,, set up by a chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia patient, Jim Kepner, to help chronic disease suffers defeat C. pneumoniae infections. This site has a rich lode of MS patients recounting their experiences with antibiotics.

On the clinical research side, pilot trials of antibiotic therapies for MS have been undertaken by several groups, with promising results. [15, 16, 17] It seems only a matter of time, patient pressure, and perhaps a few funerals before large-scale trials are funded.

The experience of MS patients shows that combination antibiotic treatments targeted at C. pneumoniae often halt MS progression and sometimes, as in the case of Sarah Wheldon, bring about substantial recovery.

In an upcoming post, I’ll talk about dietary reasons why antibiotics may fail, or succeed only after a protracted struggle with exceptionally difficult side effects.

[1] Marie, P., Leçons sur les Meladies de la Moelle, Paris, Masson, 1892. Cited in: “Cures” for multiple sclerosis. Br Med J. 1970 Jan 10;1(5688):59-60.

[2] “Cures” for multiple sclerosis. Br Med J. 1970 Jan 10;1(5688):59-60.

[3] Le Gac P et al. The psittacosis virus in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1966 Nov 28;263(22):1793-5. A translation of the full text is available here: More case studies may be found here:

[4] Field EJ, Chambers M. Rickettsial antibodies in multiple sclerosis. Br Med J. 1970 Jan 3;1(5687):30-2.

[5] Kurtzke JF, Hyllested K. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands: I. Clinical and epidemiological features. Ann Neurol. 1979 Jan;5(1):6-21. Kurtzke JF, Heltberg A. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands: an epitome. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Jan;54(1):1-22.

[6] Cantorna MT. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: an update. Nutr Rev. 2008 Oct;66(10 Suppl 2):S135-8.

[7] Sriram S et al. Multiple sclerosis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the CNS. Neurology. 1998 Feb;50(2):571-2. Stratton CW et al. Does Chlamydia pneumoniae play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis? J Med Microbiol. 2000 Jan;49(1):1-3.

[8] Sriram S et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1999 Jul;46(1):6-14.

[9] Mitchell, William M. & Stratton, Charles W. “Diagnosis and management of infection caused by Chlamydia,” U.S. Patent Number 6,884,784,

[10] David’s story told by himself:

[11] Sarah’s story told by herself:

[12] Sarah’s story told by David:


[14] Stratton CW, Wheldon DB. Multiple sclerosis: an infectious syndrome involving Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Trends Microbiol. 2006 Nov;14(11):474-9.  Stratton CW, Wheldon DB. Antimicrobial treatment of multiple sclerosis. Infection. 2007 Oct;35(5):383-5; author reply 386.

[15] Sriram S et al. Pilot study to examine the effect of antibiotic therapy on MRI outcomes in RRMS. J Neurol Sci. 2005 Jul 15;234(1-2):87-91.

[16] Minagar A et al. Combination therapy with interferon beta-1a and doxycycline in multiple sclerosis: an open-label trial. Arch Neurol. 2008 Feb;65(2):199-204.

[17] Metz LM et al. Glatiramer acetate in combination with minocycline in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a Canadian, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Mult Scler. 2009 Oct;15(10):1183-94.

Leave a comment ?


  1. Wow. I had a friend who contacted MS as a college student was eventually institutionalized and died at approximately age 60. Sufferin horribly all her life. It’s mind boggling that all of that may have been unnecessary and easily fixed.

    • MS is not easily fixed — even with antibiotics the recovery is arduous — but a long and difficult recovery is far better than the relentless, helpless decline that is the usual course.

      In my case as in Sarah Wheldon’s, there was an immediate recovery of cognitive function upon starting antibiotics. This is because the antibiotics – doxycycline and a macrolide – are protein synthesis inhibitors which prevent the bacteria from making proteins that interfere with cell functions. So the bacteria become quiescent and symptoms improve. Yet the bacteria are still there. It takes a long while to get rid of them, and as they die they release a lot of toxins (endotoxins) and health is temporarily impaired by these toxins. This is why recovery is slow.

      But the key point is that there is hope for MS and other chronic diseases, and it’s terribly sad that most disease sufferers aren’t aware of what they can do to help themselves.

  2. Paul, I’m sorry if I seemed flippant. By so easily, I meant no invasive surgery or copious strong drugs, etc. Were you able to pinpoint what exactly had invaded your body so others could be tested for that substance.

    So many questions. It’s amazing researchers aren’t breaking down your door.

  3. Hi erp, I didn’t take you as flippant. I just didn’t want to give any MS patients the idea that I thought recovery was easy.

    Actually, my case was fairly easy, but that’s because (a) I had spent five years optimizing diet and supplements and gotten pretty far toward clearing the bug from a lot of my body, and (b) my brain infection hadn’t progressed very far. Though I had physical symptoms for 17 years and cognitive symptoms for 11, I was never diagnosed with MS, and I’m not sure I would have shown lesions on an MRI.

    I’ll never know what the specific pathogen was, but all my symptoms were consistent with C. pneumoniae plus a yeast/fungal co-infection.

    For me, it was disabling in that it prevented me from doing the intellectual work I had my heart set on. I probably started work on curing it at a much earlier stage than other people in a similar situation because I set such a high store on cognitive function.

  4. Paul,

    I recently purchased your book, which I loved. It gave me some hope of gaining insight into some bizarre symptoms I am having. I would love to get your opinion if you have time, because I am worried that I am developing some sort of infection in my CNS.

    I am 42, fit, athletic, and have been eating a paleo, gluten free, low to moderate carb style diet for the past two and a half years. Since then I have felt much better, except for the symptoms described below.

    One year ago I had about five days of very unusual pain that made me wonder whether I had meningitis. I had traveling, moderate “nervy” pain in my neck, arms and low back. The pain traveled around nerve tracts and came and went quickly from place to place. I had a very mild fever and diarhhea. Then it completely resolved. Then I had three more similar five day episodes every two to three months that came and went the same way.

    In July I started to get some sciatic type pain in my left leg which didn’t worry me at first until I noticed getting some nervy pain down my arms (ulnar nerves) and then in a few more days I started getting a traveling and transient mild numbness or mild nerve pain in various parts of my body, mostly fingers, toes, ulnar and peroneal nerve distributions.

    After another week or two I started having strange episodes at about 2 am every couple days where I would wake up with various strange tingling and nervy feelings as well as a racing heart and feeling very hot and wide awake.

    My symptoms went away for a few days last week and now are returning. I haven’t had any weakness or lack of coordination. I am concerned that I am in the early stages of MS or some other infection of the CNS and would really appreciate your advice as to what diagnostic or preventative steps I should take. Of course my doc has no idea what is going on. Thanks.

  5. Hi NCS,

    It’s very possible that you have some sort of infection. The fever and diarrhea definitely show you had an infection, and it is common for acute illnesses to occur at the start of a chronic infection with different symptoms. The immune response to the acute infection chases the pathogen into a cryptic state that may flare up intermittently as yours has.

    The trouble is we don’t know all the various pathogens and how they link up to symptoms, so it’s a bit tricky to identify antibiotics.

    Your symptoms sound a bit fibromyalgia-like.

    Here is what I would do:

    1) Read through this post: and also Step Four of the final version of the book when you get it. This will help you understand more dietary and nutritional steps you can take.

    2) Start reading discussion forums at disease sites for fibromyalgia, MS, etc. and see if you see other people with similar symptoms. You can learn from their experiences. was very helpful for me, and they have both fibromyalgia and MS patients. Post your symptoms, just like you did here, on those forums and see what others say.

    3) Ask your doctor for some doxycycline, 200 mg, enough for a few weeks. Wait until you are experiencing symptoms to try it. If it’s working, you should notice something — could be positive (as protein synthesis inhibition stops the bacteria from doing harm) or negative (bacterial die-off, endotoxicity, porphyrin toxicity). If you don’t notice anything, it’s probably not a bacterial infection, though even that is not certain.

    The first step is general healthy living and diagnosis. The best possible outcome would be that symptoms go away when you take doxycycline; then we’ll know it’s a doxycycline-responsive bacterial infection and you’ll have a good case for getting on a protocol like the combination antibiotic protocol that works on C. pneumoniae infections.

    Of course viral infections, like the retrovirus infection that causes chronic fatigue, are not amenable to antibiotics and are tougher to deal with. And different bacteria respond to different antibiotics. So some experimentation is in order.

    You can also ask for LDN and see if that helps. I don’t have personal experience with it but many chronic disease patients report that it helps, and early trials have been very promising.

    Best of luck and keep us posted.

  6. Paul,

    Thanks so much for the advice. The discouraging thing is that I’m already doing the healthy living part and this came on after I started that. On to step two I guess. I look forward to the book.

  7. Paul,

    Just got some tests back from the doc. My Vit B6 level is way high – 122! This could easily account for my neuropathy symptoms. The question is how did it get so high? I don’t supplement B6 and my multi, which I take once every few days has 25mg. So its not too much B6 in, maybe I am having a problem excreting. I have read that excess B6 might be the fault of the kidney.

    Have you ever heard of such a problem? Do you have any advice? (Other than stop taking the multi.)


  8. Hi ncs,

    I’m glad you found a diagnosis!

    I’m afraid I haven’t heard of this problem before. It sounds like you should consult with a nephrologist. If your kidneys aren’t excreting B6 there may be other things they aren’t doing.

    As for advice – well, this paper says that coffee reduces B6 neurotoxicity: So I might try drinking coffee!

  9. Thanks Paul,

    Well, a good excuse to resume my coffee habit! I assume it works because of the diuretic effect.

  10. Hi to any one out there that may know, I was diagnosed with PPMS 6 years ago I started on Dr Weldhams anti biotic protocol 8 weeks ago I have only been taking the first 2 Anti biotics, Doxy ans Roxy, I am about to start the pulsing of Flagyl, my question is that since I started, my walking has become so much much worse as my fatigue has, its been 2 months now and things are getting worse, should that be seen as a good side effect?…….I want to persevere but sometimes I also just want to give up……has anyone out there either been where I am or knows what side effects to expect and can elleviate some of my concern…….thanks Alexander

  11. Hi Alexander,

    Those symptoms are fairly common. Infected cells die, bacterial toxins are released during die-off, so these indicate the antibiotics are working.

    However, you don’t want them to work too quickly, or you can poison yourself. You need to calibrate the dose to give your body a chance to clear toxins and heal itself.

    Usually people start with just doxy, as otherwise the die-off effects can be severe as you’re experiencing.

    Also vitamin D should be optimized early. Are you taking that?

    Diet is also important. You don’t want to feed the bacteria with excess carbs or fructose; or damage the immune system with wheat or omega-6 fats. And you need good nutrition for immune function and removal of die-off toxins.

    Drink a lot of water (and eat some salt) to help clear toxins and eat a lot of coconut oil to protect neurons. Some take charcoal or similar “moppers” to help prevent fat-soluble toxins cleared through liver and bile from re-entering the body through the gut.

    I would absolutely hold off on the Flagyl until these die-off symptoms subside. “Go as fast as you can but no faster.” It takes a long time to cure, so you have to be patient.

    If die-off symptoms are too severe, you might want to back off the Roxy for a bit. Also, for the macrolide many people prefer azithromycin.

    If you haven’t found them already, please go to, read their “Getting Started” guide for tips on supplements and antibiotic ramp-up, and post a blog saying just what you did here. Many people there have PPMS and can share their experiences with you. It is tremendously valuable to be able to exchange symptoms and experiences with other people who have been through the same thing.

    Good luck Alexander! Don’t give up, it is possible to be cured. Please stay around and tell us how you’re doing. Diet is a very important part of MS recovery, and we’re happy to help with any questions you may have.

    Best, Paul

  12. Thanks you so much for your speedy and caring reply, I am taking all the other vitamins and Nac Nag etc I have been on Vit D for some time, I must admit though that I do not drink nearly as much water as I know I should……….anyway thank you so much…..I appreciate your time and concern greatly……Alexander

  13. Hi,
    Thanks for your site and book. It is very helpful! I haven’t read your book, only your site articles so far. My sister and I both have Huntington’s Disease (she is in stage 2 with major movement prombelms, and I am in stage 1 with no movements yet. She is 39 and I am 43. I was wondering if you would recommend a keto diet like I saw on your site earlier. It is interesting because I am reading a book called Stop Alzheimer’s Now! by Bruce Fife, ND, and he recommends a coconut oil based keto diet as well for all neurodegenerative based diseases. Then I was looking at Dr. Terry Walhs, and how she cured her MS through another nutritional path, and she talks about HD as well as being one of the diseases that could helped by her protocol. I was wondering if you had heard of them and your thoughts on what my sister and I should follow.

    Thanks for your time!


  14. Hi Steve,

    I would recommend a ketogenic diet for Huntington’s. Ketogenic diets are generally neuroprotective and reduce glutamine/glutamate excitotoxicity which are factors in Huntington’s. I would expect a KD to slow disease progression.

    It’s been tested in a mouse model of Huntington’s and looks beneficial:

    Dr Wahl’s diet is a good one but it is an antimicrobial diet which is good for infectious diseases, which I believe MS is. I would not expect it to be especially good for Huntington’s.

    I would suggest reading the various posts in our ketogenic diet category, as well as our book. In general, you want a highly nourishing diet, which is what our diet is. Then just tweak it to make it ketogenic by (a) reducing carbs down to about 200 calories per day, all from glucose/starch sources, and (b) adding MCT oil or coconut oil (possibly also leucine/BCAAs) to promote ketogenesis.

    Best, Paul

  15. Hi Paul,

    Thanks for the great reply! Not only are you really well informed and intelligent, I can tell you are someone that really cares about people not just from my post, but to everyone on your site. I didn’t know about that study you published. Very interesting. I am going to buy your book, too, and follow your recommendations. I first learned about your book from the book review section on the weston price site by Chris Masterjohn, and I wanted to find out more about it. That is what led me to this site.

    Thanks again for everything!


  16. I just ordered your book. I can’t wait! Thanks again! Any exercise recommendations?


  17. Hi Steve,

    I don’t know what exercises would be good for Huntington’s. I imagine things like yoga or tai chi that exercise proprioception might be good, but that’s just a guess.

  18. Hi Paul,

    I have heard Tai Chi was good before in the HD forums.

    Thanks again!

  19. Much of the information on your site is very useful. However I/we have encountered some things that are not listed here nad you might find them useful.

    My wife and I both have FMS/CFS as well as Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Our leaning process has involved research from every source we can find since about 1990 and she runs an internet email group (Green Canary) which is a reasonably well known international support group for people with these illnesses.

    I though you might find these other items interesting, as the information from them has made a very large difference in our lives. To be plain here,l my wife came very close to dying from her health issues and has one of the worst cases of FMS/CFS (and the rest) that any of doctors have ever seen….including her immunologist who now went on to work for the World Health Organization.

    As follows:

    1) The “Toxic Load” theory of modern illnesses (and some from earlier in times like Victorian England and the coal smog in the air). Detoxification is a central theme for attaining health in this concept, as the body is well beyond its ability to cope, due to poisoning. This seems to be true as research into FMS/CFS shows a lack of proper function (an a need for support) in the glutathione detox biochemical pathway.

    This also includes the research and treatments of DRs Pall & Ziem and their “Tenth Disease Paradgn” in which there is a biochemical theory (with a lot of supporting medical research) that explains how CFS/FMS and a number of other similar illnesses function. They also have treatment protocols which are WORKING.

    This involves the idea that the body is stuck in a self supporting destructive biochemical cycle. The body produces far too much peroxinitrite and NO, resulting a pain, and their web sites (google them) explain it all very well.

    It is necessary to support the crippled biochemical pathways in order to escape the vicious cycle. Nebulised Glutathion is a central piece of the puzzle.


    Humans did not evolve in a stew of human invented chemicals, most of which are quite toxic, known to cause cancer, etc. Some of them look like neurotransmitters to the brain. Otghers are very oestrongenic in nature. Quite a few of them cannot be toxicified by the human liver very well,.

    Our bodies simply cannot rid themselves of these substances. A number of independent “mass spec” studies on humans have shown that we are all FAR to close to the upper limits of what our bodies can tollerate before we become extremely ill and die.

    Nearly everyone in the 1st world and emerging nations of the earth, are above the safe level of of these artificial toxins. THer is even a percentage of people who LACK the liver enzymjes necessary for removing some of these items (like organichlorine pestacides for one).

    This is an entire new paradigm of disease.

    Even the smallest additional trigger (physical or mental stress, a viral infection, a mental trauma,too much work and not enough sleep) can send a person into a spiral of biochemical disruption.

    It is likely that given enough time, this illness type is ALSO causing changes in the patients epigenetic states (genes states which run the primary states of the body…things like puberty, pregnancy, fertility, aging, cell death, ATP production, cellular oxygenation, the S-Glutathion detoxification pathway in the liver).

    When the body adapts to constant illness of this sort, it adapts to the poisoning/disease that causes this biochemical disruption. Given enough time it will SET new epinegenetic states which are VERY hard to stop. Over time the body will function with NEW biochemical reactions due to changes in our genetic switches running the show.

    As such, the body no longer has the ability to turn off those genetic switches without intervention (by way of supporting the compromised pathways…as of yet the only method to do this).

    Many diseases on extreme increase fit this toxicity pattern, in which no other answer for the rapid increase can explain the level of increase over such a short time. Many of these illnesses were once considered diseases of (or only seen in) “old age” as the body tends to build up toxins with age. However, easlly failure of fertility is now quite common, as is early altzheimers. Diseases of the Autism Spectrum, MS, ADD/ADHD, food allergies, IBS, and many autoimmune diseases are a part of this spectrum of illnesses.

    Unfortunately, as proven in gene research on multigeneration famine victims in small populations in Norther Europe, these gene states are inherited from ones parents, allowing for rapid evolutionary changes to famine, high altitudes (etc), but also placing the next generation at a higher risk of FMS/CFS (which DOES seem to run in families).

    It is even quite possible that the genetic states that cause the amygdla to malfunction and shrink in PTSD, and the brain to malfunction in unresolved schizophrenia, are also passed on to the next generqation. This would explain why MANY diseases seem to have odd (and unexplainable) heritability. This includes collagen disorders such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome where what were once known as solidly inherited conditions, have been shown to be more complicated.

    2) Herbs and supplements


    Vitamin C is vital for the transition of serotonin, oxytocin, dopamine, tryptophan into one another.
    Lack of it can cause depression (a known symptom of scurvy). At least 7 mg per day is necessary in FMS.

    GLUTHATION, L-GLUTAMINE, MILK THISTLE (aka blessed thistle, St Marys Thistle)

    Anything which supports the glutathion detox pathways helps in this illness. It decrease pain from our experience as well as other symptoms. L-Glutamine helps in glutathion re-uptake (so that it does not just wash through the body).


    maple syrup, especially late harvest (type B) maple syrup, has been shopwn to interrupt the NO cycle which is a major cause of pain in FMS/CFS. Before research validated this, anecdotal evidence was on the web from sufferers who stated that a swig of it reduced their pain rapidly. It contains antioxidants, though not as much as blueberry. Stopping NO pverproduction helps in reducing the overproduction of peroxinitrite and/or NO.


    DAMIANA is supposed to help aceytlcholine. 100 years ago Damiana was prescribed for Neurasthenia (or ‘nervous exhaustion’). This was literally an inability of the nerves and brain to function due to exhaustion. The diagnosis fell out of favor as the symptoms were considered too “ill defined” to be a real disease. Neurasthenia also had *ALL* the symptoms of Fibromyalgia. In my wife and myself, Damiana reduced our nerve pain SIGNIFICANTLY (a large problem which we were unbable to get any other treatment for which actually worked…neurontic / gabapentin did nothing but make us ill). Damiana takes about a week to fully kick in (at 6 gel caps a day) to build up the right blood level.

    CAUTION !!! Damiana is is a BLOOD THINNER like warferin. It is traditionally used to treat depression, high blood pressure and thick blood and does seem to help in diabetes. Those on medications for these problems should use caution not to DOUBLE treat their problems. As many people with FMS have thick blood (often secondary polycythemia) this effect can be very helpful. In my case it helped regulate my high blood pressure (untreatable otherwise) and lets me bleed normally for the first time in a decade.


    Anything that supports aceytelcholene (or synaptic repair)and/or helps in the production and/or transfer or re-uptake of :

    and especially DOPAMINE (the brain reward system

    All of these are disrupted. People with FMS/CFS who have been treated for problems in this area and watched their own reactions, can tell the difference in which of these are being disrupted and/or addressed. ALl need to be addresses.

    Lack of dopamine increases pain, decreases memory and decreases interest in things one considers enjoyable including a decrease in enjoyment of taste, touch, scents, important relationships, socialization, orgasmic function, hobbies and other persuits, positive memories, etc. This is different from the symptoms of serotonin disruption.

    Dopamine function in the lower areas of the brain of those with FMS has been proven (via brain scans), and results in an increase in pain perception, as well as a lack of “enjoyment” (a life without normal brain reward).

    One part of FMS pain is unrelenting nerve pain which involved DOPAMINE (FMS IS also now classified as a form of central nerve sensitization) , and Damiana is supposed to increase aceytlcholene health and synaptic healing. It decreased our nerve pain a great deal.

    Vitamin D helps with BONE PAIN. This is another common part of FMS pain. Nearly all people in the western world are too low in this vitamin. Manhy pf us have been taught to FEAR sulight, and we now all wander around with D vitamin deficiency.


    this herb decreased our spams, is supposed to increase/modulate dopamine levels. This did indeed change our brain reward, but no tin an extreme manner (not really enough but a real improvement).

    Schizanrda helps to oxygenate the cells (a serious issue) and OUR pain levels dropped a great deal from its use. We have far less spasms than when we started using it. It was used traditionally to allow divers to stay underwater longer (free divers) when working under a load. This helps to keep the blood from being too thick (mine showed secondary polycythemia with dangerously high blood pressure)
    Brain reward is disputed


    You are missing this concept on your page. This one element can explain WHY these illnesses (MS and many others) seem to be on the increase in certain parts of the world…often directly paralleling the level and TYPE of industry, and the amount of pesticide and other exposures. The human body did not evolve in an environment with the types of human creations we are now bathed in. The PALL/ZIEM protocol says one must AVOID these things, and go organic as possible. We have found a massive difference in daily function and a lowering of pain when we do this. Pain is intolerable (and immediate) from eating non-organic food (we did double blind testing in the home). WHenI go out to get food and medications, my blood pressure goes from 120/75 (pulse 65) to 170/98 until after I have done detoxification.


    Although this was considered to be normal good medicine from WWI until the late 60s early 1970s, it is not considered dangerou (with no evidence of such). The accidental discovery of the coffee enema (organic coffee and pure water ONLY) is very wel researched and documented. It was once commonly used in people who could not use morphine and who had severe pain problems. In our experience, a coffee enema treatment is the equivalent of roughly 20mg to 40mg sustained release morphine. It also removes toxins without the need to pass through the liver.; Coffee taken via the bowel does not allow normal intake of the caffeine as in oral use (my wife is VERY allergic to oral caffeine and has no trouble with it). It forces the release of bile into the small intestine, and diue to normal position of the organs the bile is then absorbed into the large bowel without the need for normal detoxification.

    This allowed a larger use of antioxidants and other detox WITHOUT a large herx reaction. My wife has serious herx problems. CAnnot tolelrate most antioxidents. However with this therapy she CAN take them in far larger quantites. This allowed us to raise out levels in detox more rapidly than otehrwise. Acording the the Geirson institute (and the northern European hospital that still use it) the Gierson coffee enema can be done safely every 8 hours. Just make cetain to keep potassium levels up. We eat bananas and also take “biosalt” balanced salts (as we do in very not weather).

    We also recommend the rest of the Gierson therapy as well. Gierson started as a tropical disease specialist who noticed that the changes he saw in cells of people who had chronic long term illness like diabetes, cancer, etc…were very much like the cells of those who had tropicfal diseases like Malaria. He studied the differences in the cells.

    He found away to treat the entire body. He was decades ahead of his time in his understanding of the cell as an electrical system, not just ‘dirty water’. He understood the need for balanced electrolytes. He saw how chronic health issues were often accompanied by changes in the cells, distortions in their shape, and storing too much sodium (high cellular sodium is VERY common in people with western diets). Often the cells of the chronically ill hoard sodium. His system addresses this, and too much toxicity.

    It helps to restore normal cell function and dump excess cellular sodium (a common problem in chronic health issues). This therapy is very powerful. It was normal accepted practice for quite a while. In his day DR Max Gierson was considered a genius by ALbert Schweitzer…as he CURED Schweitzer of his type 2 diabetes in an era when it was a death sentence (very well documented in the papers of the day), and also cured many people of cancer (thicoffe s is in old medical journals and even newspapers).

    The part of the therapy which involves the coffee enema (organic and pure water only) works because the coffee forces the liver to push bile (full off toxins the body cannot get rid of). by grabbing toxic bile and pulling it (via osmosis…in a manner similar to dialysis) across into the large bowel where it can be excreted before being reabsorbed. This is ALSO well researched and documented, and was once normal western medicine.

    I strongly resisted these ideas for many years until extreme pain from gallbladder disease prompted me to TRY the method to reduce my pain during attacks. IT WORKS!!!

    • thnaks Ken, this is an amazing amount of knowledge and wisdom. It seems we live in an extremely toxic world and so many of us if not the our whole species is being adversely impacted. I will use your information to do my best to reduce my toxic load. I am not sure yet but seems I have MS and things are deterioating rapidly due to nervous system breakdown. I am gong to look into the anti biotic regiment because I believe I have had chlymediea in the past. I also have herpes virus and epstein barr. I and some family members have some auto-immune disorders triggered by foods such as eggs, gluten, dairy, yeast, and some nuts. This has been tough but I will not easily give up believing that our bodies can repair and rebound. Until I no longer have cognition I have choosen to fight. I am going to try acupucture, reflexoogy, lifestyle and dietary changes, detox, and other ways to combat what now is beginning to feel quite debilitating. My gallbladder now is not functioning properly do to SOD or the small valve that automatically releases the bile and pancreatic chemistry for digestion. They call it dysfunction of the oddi sphincter. I am sure this is related to neuological demylenation that seems to have increased in last few months. I wanted to try to move towards a paleo diet for protein and nutrition but now since gallbladder not functioing properly and causing pain not sure how I will manage my diet. I was wondering if I could somehow get this small valve like muscle to return to operation with detox and recovery but not sure. They may want to cut the valve to allow free flow of chemistry from gallbladder and pancreas but this is risky procedure with complications sometimes. Well thanks again for all your information and hope you and your wife are feeling well these days.

      Best regards, Anthony

  20. Hi Paul,

    I have MS. Are you familiar with the relatively recent theory that MS is caused, at least in part, by CCSVI (chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency), and if you are, how does the fact that many find relief, some full remission, from having the venoplasty surgery to correct the condition jive with the bacterial infection view of MS? I’ve been considering having the procedure done.


  21. I am not sure that the CCSVI does away with the underlying cause of the MS, or if it does, then the increased blood flow and accompanying oxygen might allow the body to better fight the infections.

    • Study I read about said ccsvi was a result of cpn and if you have the procedure done you still need the antibiotics or the veins could close again

  22. it probably matters not to the people who have had very positive results, and there are many. i’ve had the procedure done since i posted my previous comment, and unfortunately i am among the roughly 1/3 of patients who see no positive results.

    • That’s really tough, Sean. I admin a private support group for folks with MS and other chronic disease on Facebook. The surgeon in our group who does CCSVI considers it a cure. You are welcome to join us and ask him why yours didn’t work. I think he believes that many people are tested and analysed incorrectly prior to surgery, and that some do not get all the correct locations dealt with. Idk but would like to get a handle on this before I’d consider the surgery to not be disappointed. Not sure one can do any better than what you did, though. May just be the role of the dice right now – which sucks.

  23. I know many people with MS….the info is well and good. Where does a person go for treatment? How much does it cost?

    I have tired of cures…where is the action?

    • Hi Rich,

      Are you talking about CCSVI? I don’t know about that.

      I personally would start with diet and lifestyle, and then look into antimicrobial treatments.

      Antimicrobial treatment is inexpensive but difficult to obtain because it is difficult to diagnose which treatment will help. This is one reason why starting with diet and lifestyle improvements, which will typically clarify symptoms and improve the function of antimicrobial drugs, is highly desirable.

      If the cause of the disease is indeed vascular, then I think diet and nutrition and lifestyle are the best therapies.

      • CCSVI is found in MS, CFS, and Rosacea (as well as a few other diseases). Malformations in the internal jugular veins can actually force deoxygenated blood flow backwards into the brain…not a good thing. Angioplasty to open the obstructed veins can alleviate some of the symptoms in some patients, particularly symptoms related to pressure in the head/neck and unclear thinking. It’s said that agitation of the vagus nerve during the procedure also stimulates the body thermostat…patients feel warm after the procedure. A low risk procedure which has brought relief to many.

  24. It depends on where in the country you are. There are only a few places in the US doing the procedure. The most active are NY and CA, but there is also FL and soon OH again. People often fly to Italy or Poland or India for it, too.

    Stem cell, people go to Panama or CA.

    The vaccine is due within a year.

    None is a cure but they buy a lot of time and turn back symptoms for many. If you get on the CCSVI list in the US, insurance and Medicare can cover it. Not so for stem cell.

  25. Low dose naltrexone (LDN) works well for me. Gives me strength and coordination. Been taking it for 7 years. Best pharmacy price so far is Gideon’s in NYC. I get it twice a year to keep shipping down. It’s about $21 a month.

    Here’s my new ebook of poems about this journey.

  26. Vaughan Williams

    Hi Paul,
    Im currently following George Jelinek’s OvercomingMultipleSclerosis diet program, both your diet and his diet offer the same basic outcome but from different directions. Both have a target of defeating MS, one through eradication of saturated fats and the other through antibiotics and diet
    Do you see any potential correlation between the two diets where one could get the same benefits without disregarding one of or each diet entirely?


    • Hi Vaughan,

      Well, there can be more than one way to skin a cat, but I think our way is better.

      Not to get too detailed about it, but here is one paper touching on the main issue. Keep in mind that saturated fats don’t cross the blood-brain barrier so their only effect on the brain is via their influence on systemic inflammation.

      In general, the 12%-SF diet, most closely mimicking the standard American diet, led to the greatest adiposity, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance (IR), whereas the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets produced lower levels of these variables, with the 24%-SF diet resulting in the least degree of IR and the highest TC/HDL-C ratio.

      That was a typo in the abstract, the 24% SaFA diet had the highest HDL and lowest TC/HDL. It also had the least inflammation, lowest cytokine levels, smallest macrophage activation, and smallest adipocyte size.

      So the SAD with 12% saturated fat is the worst of diets but PHD with 24% saturated fat is the best and Jelinek’s with 6% is intermediate.

      • You said that saturated fat doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier, but what about the strong gut-brain connection, not to mention the notion that a high-percentage of our immune system is actually in the gut?

  27. I was just researching MS and your blog post came up, I have a theory as to why Doxycycline could work to relieve symptoms of MS.

    Disease causation in (some cases of) MS:
    EBV -> incorrect MMP9 up regulation -> blood brain barrier damage -> ms lesions

    Doxycycline is known to inhibit MMP9.

  28. Hi Paul,

    Love your website and the wealth of information you so generously share. I plan to order your book. I was diagnosed with MS 17 yrs ago; was in good physical shape for 10 years then steady decline to now – balance and spasticity issues requiring a walker, and numb from my toes to my chest. I never took a DMD. I have followed a gluten, dairy, and sugar-free diet off and on, currently following. I have tested positive for candida, negative for CPN (Quest) and Lyme (Igenex). I planned to take NAC to see if I react to it and, if so, start a CAP. I have had procedure for CCSVI twice, no real benefit. Just wanted to get your suggestions for how to proceed. I appreciate any feedback!

    • Hi Kathleen,

      I would recommend starting PHD and following it for about three months before trying antibiotics. In addition to the diet, be sure to do the lifestyle steps — intermittent fasting and circadian rhythm enhancement (light day/night cycle, ambient temperature cycle, meal timing, social interactions, sleep, exercise) are extremely important.

      Then after doing PHD for a few months, experiment with a ketogenic variant that has extra MCT oil / coconut oil and fewer carbs. This can make things better or worse depending on whether your problem is primarily bacterial or not. If it makes things better, that bodes well for antibiotics.

      Then when you start antibiotics I would experiment with doxycycline only first. This is the most benign antibiotic.

      Changes which can help or hurt, like antibiotics or the ketogenic diet, should be isolated in a controlled way so you can assess whether they are helping.

      NAC is good, this almost always helps.

      Best, Paul

  29. Just a few things I’m nt sure about .am excited about the antibiotic treatment for ms . So if I do try the treatment would it still be safe to use Avonex with them? I was diagnosed with ms in January

  30. Not sure how I should be taking metronidazole, when I first started taking it I felt sick and dizzy should I take every 2 or 3 weeks 1 3 times a day, been on this 7 mounths now havnt seen any changes.

  31. Hi paul. I have ms since september 2013. I am from argentina, i was using interferon but started to get worse. Then 3 months ago i leaved interferon and started to use ldn, thanks god i am 10 point i dont have anything improvement right know. The only virus that igg and igm i have is eppstein bar. Which antibiothics i must taky how much mg? And how longer? Thanks!!!

  32. Best Infectious Disease Doctor Nyc – Health Care - pingback on September 14, 2016 at 6:14 pm
  33. Hi Paul,
    I have bad news, good news, and would like your opinion. 🙂

    I have read and own your book. I have been told (including a second and third opinion) by doctors that the vision problems I had in 2016 & 2017 (double vision & optic neuritis respectively) could only be explained as early signs of M.S. 🙁 They did not find any lesions in order to diagnose me. I was 30 and 31 years old then. I read your book and supplemented some neuroprotective supplements (Vit. B12, Vit. D, and lions mane for example). To my delight, I didn’t have another vision episode the next year or ever (knock on wood) this year is 2020 when I’m writing this.

    Something curious and strange that happened though, while the fatigue which I had all along has continued, I saw a doctor for my excessive daytime sleepiness and have been diagnosed now with Narcolepsy! …to my surprise. I read about this that it can also have auto-immune origins and I also read that the area of the brain affected by Narcolepsy is next to (and connected to?) the optic nerve. I’m wondering if there’s an infection or something spreading cell damage in this area. Any thoughts? I thought it was weird to have “early MS symptoms” related to my vision, then get diagnosed with Narcolepsy 3 years later.

    What parts of the PhD diet do you feel are most important in avoiding auto-immunity, and in protecting nerves and the hippocampus cells from damage? Is there a dietary way to discourage C. pneumoniae to avoid the side effects of antibiotics? Should I try the Autoimmune protocol and only reintroduce the PhD approved foods?

  34. Hi Paul,

    I didn’t fully understand this article, but knowing you Paul, you may be interested in this research!

    P.S. I recall in your book, recommending to take B vitamins only once a week to prevent certain microbes from overgrowth, rather than taking them daily. Looking at this article had me remembering your warnings against letting microbes get out of control.

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