Notes to the Book

This page contains the notes for our book Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat (US edition, Scribner, 2012), plus errata. Click the following titles to reach the notes for each chapter:

Part I: An Evolutionary Guide to Healthful Eating

Part II: What to Eat for Energy

Part III: Foods to Avoid

Part IV: How to Be Well Nourished

Part V: A Recipe for Healthful Living

Preface

[1] Holt BM, Formicola V. Hunters of the Ice Age: the biology of Upper Paleolithic people. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 2008(suppl);47:70–99, http://pmid.us/19003886. Cohen MN. Health and the rise of civilization. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

[2] Lindeberg S et al. Haemostatic variables in Pacific Islanders apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease—the Kitava Study. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1997 Jan;77(1):94–8, http://pmid.us/9031456.

Chapter 1: Why We Start with an Evolutionary Perspective

[1] Hawks J et al. Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007 Dec 26;104(52):20753–8, http://pmid.us/18087044.

[2] Nachman MW, Crowell SL. Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans. Genetics 2000 Sep;156(1):297–304, http://pmid.us/10978293.

[3] Kimura M, Ohta T. The average number of generations until fixation of a mutant gene in a finite population. Genetics 1969 Mar;61(3):763–71, http://pmid.us/17248440.

Chapter 2: The Paleolithic Diet

[1] Freeman LM et al. Disease prevalence among dogs and cats in the United States and Australia and proportions of dogs and cats that receive therapeutic diets or dietary supplements. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2006 Aug 15;229(4):531–4, http://pmid.us/16910851.

[2] Klimentidis YC et al. Canaries in the coal mine: a cross-species analysis of the plurality of obesity epidemics. Proceedings of the Royal Society—Biological Sciences 2011 Jun 7;278(1712):1626–32, http://pmid.us/21106594.

[3] Clubb R et al. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science 2008 Dec 12;322(5908):1649, http://pmid.us/19074339.

[4] Holt BM, Formicola V. Hunters of the Ice Age: The biology of Upper Paleolithic people. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 2008;suppl 47:70–99, http://pmid.us/19003886. Formicola V, Giannecchini M. 1999. Evolutionary trends of stature in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe. Journal of Human Evolution 1999 Mar;36(3):319–33, http://pmid.us/10074386. Brennan, MU. Health and disease in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of southwestern France: a bioarchaeological study. PhD dissertation, New York University, 1991.

[5] Books include Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (1984, by Mark Nathan Cohen and George J. Armelagos), Health and the Rise of Civilization (1991, Mark Nathan Cohen), Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton (1999, by Clark Larsen), The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere (2002, Richard H. Steckel and Jerome C. Rose, eds.), and Ancient Health: Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification (2007, edited by Mark Nathan Cohen and Gillian Crane-Kramer). A large-scale systematic study, the History of European Health Project, is now under way; see Steckel RH et al. The History of European Health Project: a history of health in Europe from the late Paleolithic era to the present. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Medica, Monographia 2009;156:19–25, http://pmid.us/20063662.

[6] Diamond J. The worst mistake in the history of the human race, Discover 187;8(5): 64–66.

[7] Anagnostis A. The palaeopathological evidence: indicators of stress of the Shanidar Proto-Neolithic and the Ganj-Dareh Tepe early Neolithic human skeletal collections. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1989. Summary in Mithen S. After the ice: a global human history, 20,000–5000 BC. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004, p. 424.

[8] Allam AH et al. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Nov 18;302(19):2091–4, http://pmid.us/19920233.

[9] Cerling TE et al. Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature 2011; 476(7358):51–56, www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7358/abs/nature10306.html.

[10] Forest dwellers need stiff spines and long, strong arms to reach below branches on which they are seated and to climb trees that lack low-lying branches due to shade from the forest canopy. When moving on the ground, they benefit from using these long, strong arms to promote locomotion. Grassland dwellers, on the other hand, benefit from bipedal walking, which raises the head and gives longer views. Some discussion can be found at Hawks J, The Ardipithecus pelvis, October 6, 2009, http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/ardipithecus/ardipithecus-pelvis-2009.html.

[11] Lovejoy CO et al. 2009. The pelvis and femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: the emergence of upright walking. Science 2009 Oct 2;326(5949): 71, 71e1–71e6, www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/71.short.

[12] Köhler M & Moyà-Solà S. Ape-like or hominid-like? The positional behavior of Oreopithecus bambolii reconsidered. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11747–50, www.pnas.org/content/94/21/11747.full.

[13] Filler AG. (2007) Homeotic evolution in the mammalia: diversification of therian axial seriation and the morphogenetic basis of human origins. PLoS One 2007:2(10):e1019, www.plosone.org/doi/pone.0001019.

[14] For background, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_fixation and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopic_signature.

[15] Yeakel JD et al. The isotopic ecology of African mole rats informs hypotheses on the evolution of human diet. Proceedings of the Royal Society—Biological Sciences 2007 Jul 22;274(1619):1723–30, http://pmid.us/17472915.

[16] Revedin A et al. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010 Nov 2;107(44):18815–9, http://pmid.us/20956317.

[17] Henry AG et al. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 Jan 11;108(2):486–91, http://pmid.us/21187393.

[18] Hardy BL, Moncel MH. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125–250,000 years ago. PLoS One 2011;6(8):e23768, http://pmid.us/21887315.

[19] Headland TN. The wild yam question: how well could independent hunter-gatherers live in a tropical rain forest ecosystem? Human Ecology 1987; 15:463–491. For more information, see Headland TN. “Could ‘Pure’ Hunter-Gatherers Live in a Rain Forest?” www.sil.org/~headlandt/wildyam.htm.

[20] Perry GH et al. Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nature Genetics 2007 Oct;39(10):1256–60, http://pmid.us/17828263.

[21] Bunn HT, Ezzo JA. Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: nutritional constraints, archaeological patterns, and behavioral implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 1993;20(4):365–398, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030544038371023X.

[22] Richards MP, Trinkaus E. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009 Sep 22;106(38):16034–9, http://pmid.us/19706482.

[23] Gibbons A. “Where’s the beef? Early humans took it,” Science Now, April 23, 2012, http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/04/wheres-the-beef-early-humans-took.html. See also Lewis ME, Werdelin L. Patterns of change in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa: implications for hominin evolution. In Hominin environments in the East African Pliocene: An assessment of the faunal evidence, ed. Bobé R, Alemseged Z, Behrensmeyer AK. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer Verlag, 2007, 77–105.

[24] Gibbons A. “Where’s the beef? Early humans took it,” Science Now, April 23, 2012, http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/04/wheres-the-beef-early-humans-took.html.

[25] Ben-Dor M et al. Man the fat hunter: the demise of Homo erectus and the emergence of a new hominin lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant. PLoS One 2011;6(12):e28689, http://pmid.us/22174868.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Laden G, Wrangham R. The rise of the hominids as an adaptive shift in fallback foods: plant underground storage organs (USOs) and australopith origins. Journal of Human Evolution 2005 Oct;49(4):482–98, http://pmid.us/16085279. Organ C et al. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 Aug 30;108(35):14555–9, http://pmid.us/21873223.

[28] Berna F et al. Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012 May 15;109(20):E1215-20, http://pmid.us/22474385.

[29] Roebroeks W, Villa P. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 Mar 29;108(13):5209–14, http://pmid.us/21402905.

[30] Brown KS et al. Fire as an engineering tool of early modern humans. Science 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):859–62, http://pmid.us/19679810.

[31] Gray JP. A corrected ethnographic atlas. World Cultures 1999; 10:24–85. Murdock GP. Ethnographic atlas: a summary. Ethnology 1967; 6:109–236.

[32] Cordain L et al. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000 Mar;71(3):682–92, http://pmid.us/10702160.

[33] Milton K. Hunter-gatherer diets—a different perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000 Mar;71(3):665–7, http://pmid.us/10702155. Milton K. Reply to L. Cordain et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000 Dec;72(6):1590–1592, www.ajcn.org/content/72/6/1590.full. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: A review of Paul and Shou-Ching Jaminet’s Perfect health diet: four steps to renewed health, youthful vitality, and long life, December 28, 2010, www.cholesterol-and-health.com/Paul-Shou-Ching-Jaminet-Perfect-Health-Diet-Review.html.

[34] Jaminet P. Hunter-gatherer macronutrient ratios: more data, February 3, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/02/hunter-gatherer-macronutrient-ratios-new-data. Kaplan HS, Hill KR, Lancaster JB, Hurtado AM. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and bongevity. Evolutionary Anthropology 9:156–185, 2000, www.unm.edu/~hkaplan/KaplanHillLancasterHurtado_2000_LHEvolution.pdf.

[35] Hart TB, Hart JA. The ecological basis of hunter-gatherer subsistence in African rain forests: the Mbuti of eastern Zaire. In Case studies in human ecology, ed. Bates DG, Lees SH. New York: Plenum Press, 1996, 55–84. Quote from http://books.google.com/books?id=iJ5QZkh9aAYC&pg=PA73, 73. Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: http://huntgatherlove.com/content/ecological-basis-hunter-gatherer-subsistence-african-rain-forests-mbuti-eastern-zaire and personal communication.

Chapter 3: The “Cannibal Diet” of Fasting

[1] LeJeune P. Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France. Quoted in Sahlins M. Stone Age economics. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972, 32. Full text, hat tip Mark Ayers.

[2] Hionidou V. Why do people die in famines? Evidence from three island populations. Population Studies 2002 Mar;56(1):65–80, http://pmid.us/12102100.

[3] Lindeberg S, Lundh B. Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. Journal of Internal Medicine 1993 Mar;233(3):269–75, http://pmid.us/8450295. Lindeberg S. The Kitava Study, www.staffanlindeberg.com/TheKitavaStudy.html.

[4] Keeley LH. War before civilization. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1996, 91.

[5] Ibid., 37.

[6] LeBlanc SA, Register KE. Constant battles: the myth of the peaceful, noble savage. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003, 4. Müller W et al. Origin and migration of the Alpine Iceman. Science 2003 Oct 31;302(5646):862–6, http://pmid.us/14593178. “Iceman” was murdered, science sleuths say. USA Today, August 11, 2003, www.usatoday.com/news/health/2003-08-11-iceman-murder_x.htm.

[7] Wang ZM et al. The five-level model: a new approach for organizing body-composition research, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992 Jul;56(1):19–28, http://pmid.us/1609756.

Chapter 4: What Breast Milk Teaches Us About the Perfect Health Diet

[1] Gennery DB. Mortality rate as a function of age, 2010, www.grg.org/DGenneryMortality5.pdf.

[2] Hill K et al. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 2007 Apr;52(4):443–54, http://pmid.us/17289113. Hat tip to John Hawks: Hunter-gatherer mortality, March 28, 2007, http://johnhawks.net/weblog/reviews/life_history/aging_evolution/hill_2007_hiwi_mortality.html.

[3] Trinkaus E. Neandertal mortality patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science 1995;22:121–42.

[4] Victora CG et al. Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil. The Lancet 1987 Aug 8;2(8554):319–22, http://pmid.us/2886775.

[5] Kramer MS et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 2008 May;65(5):578–84, http://pmid.us/18458209.

[6] Lucas A et al. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. The Lancet 1992 Feb 1;339(8788):261–4, http://pmid.us/1346280.

[7] Zivkovic AM et al. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 Mar 15;108(suppl 1):4653–8, http://pmid.us/20679197.

[8] George DE, DeFrancesca BA. Human milk in comparison to cow milk. In Textbook of gastroenterology and nutrition, ed. Lebenthals E. New York: Raven Press, 1989, 239–61. See also Prentice A. Constituents of human milk. www.unu.edu/unupress/food/8F174e/8F174E04.htm.

[9] Jensen RG. Lipids in human milk. Lipids 1999 Dec;34(12):1243–71, http://pmid.us/10652985. The short-chain fatty acids butyric acid and caprylic acid were not listed in Jensen’s tables 8, 9, and 10, from which these data were drawn, and the fatty acids listed summed to 96.8% of total fats. Butyric and caprylic acid constitute 5.4% of cow’s milk fats (http://nutritiondata.com). To account for missing fats, we added to Jensen’s data 3.2% of total fats as butyric and caprylic acids.

[10] Igarashi M et al. Brain lipid concentrations in bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2010 Feb;44(3):177–82, http://pmid.us/19767014.

[11] Cotter DG et al. Obligate role for ketone body oxidation in neonatal metabolic homeostasis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2011 Mar 4;286(9):6902–10, http://pmid.us/21209089.

[12] Cunnane SC, Stewart KM (eds.). (2010) Human brain evolution: the influence of freshwater and marine food resources. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, http://books.google.com/books?id=gfkRnv20GtsC, 54.

[13] Ward RE et al. In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2006 Jun;72(6):4497–9, http://pmid.us/16751577. Ruiz-Palacios GM et al. Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H(O) antigen (Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc), and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003 Apr 18;278(16):14112–20, http://pmid.us/12562767.

[14] Kunz C et al. Oligosaccharides in human milk: structural, functional, and metabolic aspects. Annual Review of Nutrition 2000;20:699–722. http://pmid.us/10940350. Coppa GV et al. Changes in carbohydrate composition in human milk over 4 months of lactation. Pediatrics 1993 Mar;91(3):637–41, http://pmid.us/8441573.

[15] Petherick A. Mother’s milk: a rich opportunity. Nature 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):S5–7, http://pmid.us/21179083.

[16] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, 547, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=547.

[17] Ibid., www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=546.

[18] Isomura H et al. Type of milk feeding affects hematological parameters and serum lipid profile in Japanese infants. Pediatrics International 2011 Mar 21, http://pmid.us/21418403. Jaminet P. Low serum cholesterol in newborn babies, July 14, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=4079.

[19] For discussions of the role of serum cholesterol in immune function, see Jaminet P. HDL and immunity, April 12, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=3112. Jaminet P. blood lipids and infectious disease, part I, June 21, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=3836. Jaminet P. Blood lipids and infectious disease, part II, July 12, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=4066.

[20] Holliday MA. Metabolic rate and organ size during growth from infancy to maturity and during late gestation and early infancy. Pediatrics 1971 Jan;47(1)(suppl 2):169+, http://pmid.us/5551034.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Pardridge WM. Advances in cell biology of blood-brain barrier transport. Seminars in Cell Biology 1991 Dec;2(6):419–26, http://pmid.us/1813031. Pardridge WM. Blood-brain barrier transport of glucose, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1991;291:43–53, http://pmid.us/1927689.

Chapter 5: What Mammalian Diets Teach Us About the Perfect Health Diet

[1] Popovich DG et al. The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. Journal of Nutrition 1997 Oct;127(10):2000–5, http://pmid.us/9311957. Hat tip to Barry Groves: Should all animals eat a high-fat, low-carb diet?, www.second-opinions.co.uk/should-all-animals-eat-a-high-fat-low-carb-diet.html.

[2] Bowen RA. Digestive physiology of perbivores, July 13, 2006, http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/herbivores/index.html.

[3] Barry Groves, Should all animals eat a high-fat, low-carb diet?, www.second-opinions.co.uk/should-all-animals-eat-a-high-fat-low-carb-diet.html.

[4] Cordain L et al. Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002 Mar;56(3):181–91, http://pmid.us/11960292.

[5] Smith BK et al. Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2000; 278 R797–805, http://pmid.us/10749765.

[6] Ortmann S et al. Self-selected macronutrient diet affects energy and glucose metabolism in brown fat-ablated mice. Obesity Research 2003 Dec;11(12):1536–44, http://pmid.us/14694219. Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Physiological insulin resistance, October 23, 2007, http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2007/10/physiological-insulin-resistance.html.

[7] Aiello LC, Wheeler P. The expensive tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology 1995 Apr;36(2):199–211.

[8] Milton, K. (1989) Primate diets and gut morphology: implications for hominid evolution. In Food and evolution: toward a theory of human food habits, ed. Harris M, Ross EB. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999, 93–116 (Table 3.2, p. 99, in http://books.google.com/books?id=xHYxSHr86T8C). Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: The human colon in evolution: part 1, comparative anatomy, May 17, 2011, http://huntgatherlove.com/node/566/.

[9] McNeil NI. The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984 Feb;39(2):338–42, http://pmid.us/6320630. Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: The human colon in evolution: part 1, comparative anatomy, May 17, 2011, http://huntgatherlove.com/node/566/.

[10] Wrangham R, Conklin-Brittain N-L, Smith CC. A two-stage model of increased dietary quality in early hominid evolution: the role of fiber. In Human diet: its origin and evolution, ed Ungar PS, Teaford MF. Westport CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2002, http://books.google.com/books?id=6GDELypdTUcC, 206. Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: The human colon in evolution: part 2, fiber follies, May 18, 2011, http://huntgatherlove.com/content/human-colon-evolution-part-2-fiber-follies.

[11] Katsarski M, Singh U. [Anatomical characteristics of the sigmoid intestine and their relationship to sigmoid volvulus among the population of Uganda and the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia) 1977;30(2):159–63, http://pmid.us/916568. Madiba TE, Haffajee MR. Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus. Clinical Anatomy 2011 May;24(4):441–53, http://pmid.us/21480385. Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: The human colon in evolution: part 5, human variation, May 21, 2001, www.huntgatherlove.com/content/human-colon-evolution-part-5-human-variation.

[12] Perry GH et al. Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nature Genetics 2007 Oct;39(10):1256–60, http://pmid.us/17828263.

[13] Jaminet P. Is there a perfect diet?, January 18, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=5463.

Chapter 6: The “Tastes Great!” Diet

[1] Sheehan MS. Ethnographic models, archaeological data, and the applicability of modern foraging theory. In Hunter-gatherers in history, archaeology, and anthropology, ed. Barnard A. New York: Berg, 2004, 163–174, at 168. Hat tip to J Stanton: Big brains require an explanation, part III: optimal foraging theory, and our story begins on two legs, www.gnolls.org/2812/big-brains-require-an-explanation-part-iii-optimal-foraging-theory-and-our-story-begins-on-two-legs/.

[2] See Jaminet P. Higher carb dieting: pros and cons, February 2, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=5528.

[3] Alsiö J et al. Feed-forward mechanisms: addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 2012 Apr;33(2):127-39. http://pmid.us/22305720. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Food reward: approaching a scientific consensus, March 22, 2010, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2012/03/food-reward-approaching-scientific.html.

[4] Guyenet SJ, Schwartz MW. Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2012 Mar;97(3):745–55, http://pmid.us/22238401.

[5] Steve Simpson, personal communication. Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obesity Reviews 2005 May;6(2):133–42, http://pmid.us/15836464. Theall CL et al. Self-selection and regulation of protein: carbohydrate ratio in foods adult rats eat. Journal of Nutrition 1984 Apr;114(4):711–8, http://pmid.us/6716172; Tews JK et al. Protein selection by rats adapted to high or moderately low levels of dietary protein. Physiology & Behavior 1992 Apr;51(4):699–712, http://pmid.us/1594667.

[6] Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obesity Reviews 2005 May;6(2):133–42, http://pmid.us/15836464.

[7] Lundberg J, McFarlane DA. Speleogenesis of the Mount Elgon elephant caves, Kenya. GSA special papers 2006, vol. 404, 51–63. Lundquist CA, Varnedoe WW Jr. Salt ingestion caves, International Journal of Speleology 2006;35(1)13–18. Hat tip to J. Stanton: When satiety fails: why are we hungry? part IV, www.gnolls.org/2407/when-satiety-fails-why-are-we-hungry-part-4/.

[8] Than K. Mystery solved: why gorillas eat rotting wood, July 9, 2006, www.livescience.com/4120-mystery-solved-gorillas-eat-rotting-wood.html.

[9] Sodium (salt or sodium chloride), April 2, 2012, www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Sodium-Salt-or-Sodium-Chloride_UCM_303290_Article.jsp.

[10] Chapman C. Federal effort to commandeer the nation’s salt shakers is based on bad science, December 11, 2011, http://reason.com/archives/2011/12/01/federal-effort-to-commandeer-the-nations.

[11] Alderman MH et al. Association of the renin-sodium profile with the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension. The New England Journal of Medicine 1991 Apr 18;324(16):1098–104, http://pmid.us/1759997. Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: the human need for salt, April 13, 2012, http://chriskresser.com/shaking-up-the-salt-myth-the-human-need-for-salt.

[12] O’Donnell MJ et al. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2011 Nov 23;306(20):2229–38, http://pmid.us/22110105.

[13] Taylor RS et al. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD009217, http://pmid.us/21735439.

[14] Jaminet P. The danger of plant foods, June 18, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=63.

[15] Jaminet P. How to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity, October 20, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=4937.

Chapter 7: The Way We Were Meant to Eat

[1] Less EH. Adiposity in zoo gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): the effects of diet and behavior. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, January 2012, http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Hoellein%20Less%20Elena.pdf?case1322582620.

[2] The story is told in a Youtube video and a variety of other accounts: Case Western Reserve University, February 17, 2001, www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9A74LvPxU8. Gorillas go green: Apes shed pounds while doubling calories on leafy diet, researcher finds. ScienceDaily, February 21, 2011, www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2011/02/110217091130.htm. Cleveland Metroparks Zoo gorillas go green, Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 29, 2009, http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2009/10/cleveland_metroparks_zoo_goril.html. Corrected weight loss data (see errata) is from Less EH. Adiposity in zoo gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): the effects of diet and behavior. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, January 2012, http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Hoellein%20Less%20Elena.pdf?case1322582620, p 115. Hat tip to John Durant, personal communication.

[3] Cordain L et al. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005 Feb;81(2):341–54, http://pmid.us/15699220.

[4] Chapter 7: Carbohydrates, www.health.gov/DietaryGuidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter7.htm.

[5] McDonald’s value meal ratios calculated from http://nutritiondata.com.

Chapter 8: An Economical Approach to Nutrition

[1] Research Diets, Inc. D12451. www.researchdiets.com/system/resources/BAhbBlsHOgZmIicyMDEyLzA0LzIwLzE0XzQyXzAyXzU5Ml9EMTI0NTEucGRm/D12451.pdf.

[2] Chris Masterjohn, “The sweet truth about liver and egg yolks—choline matters more to fatty liver than sugar, alcohol, or fat,” November 22, 2010, http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/2010/11/sweet-truth-about-liver-and-egg-yolks.html.

[3] Alissa EM et al. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 2004 Oct;85(5):265–75, http://pmid.us/15379959. Lamb DJ et al. Dietary copper supplementation reduces atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Atherosclerosis 1999 Sep;146(1):33–43, http://pmid.us/10487484.

[4] Bock BC et al. Mineral content of the diet alters sucrose-induced obesity in rats. Physiology & Behavior 1995 Apr;57(4):659–68, http://pmid.us/7777600.

[5] Pollan M. Unhappy meals. The New York Times Magazine, January 28, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/magazine/28nutritionism.t.html.

Chapter 9: Protein

[1] Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, 595–6, 608, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=595.

[2] Swick RW, Benevenga NJ. Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. Journal of Dairy Science 1977 Apr;60(4):505–15, http://pmid.us/325030. Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, 595, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=595.

[3] Madhavan TV, Gopalan C. The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Archives of Pathology 1968 Feb;85(2):133–7, http://pmid.us/4294825. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: The curious case of campbell’s rats—does protein deficiency prevent cancer?, September 22, 2010, www.westonaprice.org/blogs/cmasterjohn/2010/09/22/the-curious-case-of-campbells-rats-does-protein-deficiency-prevent-cancer/.

[4] Corish CA, Kennedy NP. Protein-energy undernutrition in hospital in-patients. British Journal of Nutrition 2000 Jun;83(6):575–91, http://pmid.us/10911765.

[5] Benabe JE, Martinez-Maldonado M. 1998. The impact of malnutrition on kidney function. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 1998;24(1):20–6, http://pmid.us/9397413.

[6] Bistrian BR. 1990. Recent advances in parenteral and enteral nutrition: a personal perspective. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1990 Jul-Aug;14(4):329–34, http://pmid.us/2119439.

[7] Reynolds JV et al. Impaired gut barrier function in malnourished patients. British Journal of Surgery 1996 Sep;83(9):1288–91, http://pmid.us/8983631.

[8] Pollitt E. 2000. Developmental sequel from early nutritional deficiencies: Conclusive and probability judgements. Journal of Nutrition 2000 Feb;130(2S suppl):350S–353S, http://pmid.us/10721904.

[9] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, 644–5, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=644.

[10] Rudman D et al. Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1973 Sep;52(9):2241–9, http://pmid.us/4727456.

[11] Speth JD, Spielmann KA. Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1983, 2:1–31, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/25268/1/0000711.pdf.

[12] McClellan WS, Du Bois EF. Clinical calorimetry XLV. Prolonged meat diets with a study of kidney function and ketosis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1931, 87:651–668.

[13] Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. Journal of AOAC International 2012 Jan–Feb;95(1):50–60, http://pmid.us/22468341.

[14] Bilsborough S, Mann N. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2006 Apr;16(2):129–52, http://pmid.us/16779921. Corpet DE et al. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein. Nutrition and Cancer 1995;23(3):271–81, http://pmid.us/7603887.

[15] Goldman HI et al. Clinical effects of two different levels of protein intake on low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1969 Jun;74(6):881–9, http://pmid.us/5781798. Goldman HI et al. Effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants: evaluation at 3 years of age. Journal of Pediatrics 1971 Jan;78(1):126–9, http://pmid.us/5539071. Goldman HI et al. Late effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1974 Dec;85(6):764–9, http://pmid.us/4472449.

[16] European Childhood Obesity Trial Study Group. Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: a randomized clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Jun;89(6):1836–45, http://pmid.us/19386747.

[17] See Jaminet P. The danger of protein during pregnancy, July 12, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=196, for details.

[18] Dunlevy LP et al. Excess methionine suppresses the methylation cycle and inhibits neural tube closure in mouse embryos. FEBS Letters 2006 May 15;580(11):2803–7, http://pmid.us/16674949.

[19] Lee MS et al. Gender differences in Health and Nutritional Status of Korean Centenarians. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society (2005); 15:3(65–75). Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: Carb intake in healthy centenarians, January 20, 2012, www.mattmetzgar.com/matt_metzgar/2012/01/carb-intake-in-healthy-centenarians.html.

[20] Gosby AK et al. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study. PLoS One 2011;6(10):e25929, http://pmid.us/22022472. See also Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. The nature of nutrition: a unifying framework from animal adaptation to human obesity. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2012.

[21] Janney NW. The protein content of muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1916;25(2):185–188, www.jbc.org/content/25/2/185.full.pdf.

[22] Christian Bale’s weight loss for The Machinist: this dedicated actor lost a whopping 63 pounds to play the lead in this movie, http://voices.yahoo.com/christian-bales-weight-loss-machinist-this-66659.html. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Overtraining, inflammation, insufficient repair: scientists shed some more light on the counterproductive triad of ups & downs in testosterone, IL-6, IL-10, COX II & co, http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2012/05/overtraining-inflammation-insufficient.html.

[23] Kumar V et al. Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 2009 Jun;106(6):2026–39, http://pmid.us/1916477. Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RR. An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1):E122–9, http://pmid.us/9252488. Churchward-Venne TA et al. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism. Nutrition & Metabolism 2012 May 17;9(1):40, http://pmid.us/22594765. Hat tip to Chris Highcock: Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise, May 17, 2012, http://conditioningresearch.blogspot.com/2012/05/nutritional-regulation-of-muscle.html.

[24] Lemon PW et al. Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. Journal of Applied Physiology 1992 Aug;73(2):767–75, http://pmid.us/1400008. See also Hoffman JR et al. Effect of protein intake on strength, body composition and endocrine changes in strength/power athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2006 Dec 13;3:12–8, http://pmid.us/18500968.

[25] Stearns RL et al. Effects of ingesting protein in combination with carbohydrate during exercise on endurance performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2010 Aug;24(8):2192–202. http://pmid.us/20683237.

[26] Yin Y et al. supplementing L-leucine to a low-protein diet increases tissue protein synthesis in weanling pigs. Amino Acids 2010 Nov;39(5):1477-86, http://pmid.us/20473536. Jitomir J, Willoughby DS. Leucine for retention of lean mass on a hypocaloric diet. Journal of Medicinal Food 2008 Dec;11(4):606–9, http://pmid.us/19053849.

[27] Sun L et al. Life-span extension in mice by preweaning food restriction and by methionine restriction in middle age. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2009 Jul;64(7):711–22, http://pmid.us/19414512. Miller RA et al. Methionine-deficient diet extends mouse lifespan, slows immune and lens aging, alters glucose, T4, IGF-I and insulin levels, and increases hepatocyte MIF levels and stress resistance. Aging Cell 2005 Jun;4(3):119–25, http://pmid.us/15924568. Orentreich N et al. Low methionine ingestion by rats extends life span. Journal of Nutrition 1993 Feb;123(2):269–74, http://pmid.us/8429371.

[28] López-Torres M, Barja G. Lowered methionine ingestion as responsible for the decrease in rodent mitochondrial oxidative stress in protein and dietary restriction possible implications for humans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2008 Nov;1780(11):1337–47, http://pmid.us/18252204. Pamplona R, Barja G. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: the protein and methionine connection. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2006 May-Jun;1757(5–6):496–508, http://pmid.us/16574059. Sanchez-Roman I et al. Effects of aging and methionine restriction applied at old age on ROS generation and oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria. Biogerontology 2012 Aug;13(4):399-411. http://pmid.us/22580750.

[29] Troen AM et al. The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003 Dec 9;100(25):15089–94, http://pmid.us/14657334.

[30] Jia K, Levine B. Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. elegans. Autophagy 2007 Nov–Dec;3(6):597–9. http://pmid.us/17912023. Petrovski G, Das DK. Does autophagy take a front seat in lifespan extension? Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2010 Nov;14(11):2543–51, http://pmid.us/21114762.

[31] Hansen M et al. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. elegans. PLoS Genetics 2008 Feb;4(2):e24, http://pmid.us/18282106.

[32] Mintern JD, Villadangos JA. Autophagy and mechanisms of effective immunity. Frontiers in Immunology 2012;3:60, http://pmid.us/22566941.

Chapter 10: Carbohydrates

[1] Lindeberg S et al. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 Oct;66(4):845–52, http://pmid.us/9322559.

[2] Dyerberg J. Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: a paradox. Implications for Western diet patterns. Arctic Medical Research 1989 Apr;48(2):47–54, http://pmid.us/2736000.

[3] Gaby, AR, Adverse effects of dietary fructose. Alternative Medicine Review 2005 Dec;10(4):294–306, http://pmid.us/16366738; Schalkwijk, CG et al. Fructose-mediated non-enzymatic glycation: sweet coupling or bad modification. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 2004 Sep-Oct;20(5):369–82, http://pmid.us/15343583.

[4] Hipkiss, AR. Dietary restriction, glycolysis, hormesis and ageing. Biogerontology 2007 Apr;8(2):221–4, http://pmid.us/16969712.

[5] Gaby, AR, Adverse effects of dietary fructose. Alternative Medicine Review 2005 Dec;10(4):294–306, http://pmid.us/16366738.

[6] Tappy L, Lê KA. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Reviews 2010 Jan;90(1):23–46, http://pmid.us/20086073.

[7] For details see Jaminet P. Is it good to eat sugar?, January 25, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/01/is-it-good-to-eat-sugar/.

[8] Sievenpiper JL et al. “Catalytic” doses of fructose may benefit glycaemic control without harming cardiometabolic risk factors: a small meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials. British Journal of Nutrition 2012 Aug;108(3):418-23, http://pmid.us/22354959.

[9] Jenkins DJ et al. The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2011 Feb;54(2):271–9, http://pmid.us/20978741.

[10] Liu H et al. Fructose induces transketolase flux to promote pancreatic cancer growth. Cancer Research 2010 Aug 1;70(15):6368–76, http://pmid.us/20647326.

[11] Nair KS et al. Leucine, glucose, and energy metabolism after 3 days of fasting in healthy human subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1987 Oct;46(4):557–62, http://pmid.us/3661473.

[12] Stern R. Hyaluronan catabolism: a new metabolic pathway. European Journal of Cell Biology 2004 Aug;83(7):317–25, http://pmid.us/15503855.

[13] Atuma C et al. The adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel layer: thickness and physical state in vivo. American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2001 May;280(5):G922–9, http://pmid.us/11292601. Faure M et al. Development of a rapid and convenient method to purify mucins and determine their in vivo synthesis rate in rats. Analytical Biochemistry 2002 Aug 15;307(2):244–51, http://pmid.us/12202240.

[14] Mayo Clinic staff, Exercise for weight loss: calories burned in one hour, www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/SM00109. Ainsworth BE et al. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2011 Aug;43(8):1575–81, http://pmid.us/21681120.

[15] Romijn JA et al. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 1995 Dec;79(6):1939–45, http://pmid.us/8847257.

[16] Burke LM et al. Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology 2000 Dec;89(6):2413–21, http://pmid.us/11090597.

[17] Pedersen DJ et al. High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. Journal of Applied Physiology 2008 Jul;105(1):7–13, http://pmid.us/18467543.

[18] Balkau B et al. Is there a glycemic threshold for mortality risk? Diabetes Care 1999 May;22(5):696–9, http://pmid.us/10332668. Jaminet P. Safe Starches Symposium: Dr Ron Rosedale, November 1, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/11/safe-starches-symposium-dr-ron-rosedale/.

[19] The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine 1993 Sep 30;329(14):977–86, http://pmid.us/8366922. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). The Lancet 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):837–53, http://pmid.us/9742976. Rossetti L. Glucose toxicity: the implications of hyperglycemia in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1995 Aug;18(4):255–60, http://pmid.us/8549010. Mooradian AD, Thurman JE. Glucotoxicity: potential mechanisms. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 1999 May;15(2):255. http://pmid.us/10339632.

[20] Khaw KT et al. Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004 Sep 21;141(6):413–20, http://pmid.us/15381514.

[21] Ziegler D et al. Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Surveys S2 and S3. Diabetes Care 2008 Mar;31(3):464–9. http://pmid.us/18039804.

[22] Batty GD et al. Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: 38-year follow-up of the original Whitehall prospective cohort study. Diabetologia 2008 Jul;51(7):1123–6, http://pmid.us/18438641.

[23] Stattin P et al. Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk. Diabetes Care 2007 Mar;30(3):561–7, http://pmid.us/17327321.

[24] Singleton JR et al. Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care 2001 Aug;24(8):1448–53. http://pmid.us/11473085. Hat tip to Jenny Ruhl: Research connecting organ damage with blood sugar level,  www.phlaunt.com/diabetes/14045678.php.

[25] Aller EE et al. Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutrients 2011 Mar;3(3):341–69, http://pmid.us/22254101.

[26] Too much fructose could leave dieters sugar shocked. ScienceDaily, December 11, 2007, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071212201311.htm. Segal MS et al. Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index? European Journal of Nutrition 2007 Oct;46(7):406–17. http://pmid.us/17763967.

[27] Brand JC et al. Food processing and the glycemic index. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985 Dec;42(6):1192–6, http://pmid.us/4072954.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Mourot J et al. Relationship between the rate of gastric emptying and glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods in young healthy adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988 Oct;48(4):1035–40, http://pmid.us/3048076. Stanton J, “Fat and glycemic index: the myth of complex carbohydrates,” January 4, 2011, www.gnolls.org/1029/fat-and-glycemic-index-the-myth-of-complex-carbohydrates/.

[30] Sugiyama M et al. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Jun;57(6):743–52, http://pmid.us/12792658.

[31] Benini L et al. Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food. Gut 1995 Jun;36(6):825–30, http://pmid.us/7615267. Jenkins AL et al. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels–a randomized, controlled trial. Nutrition Journal 2010 Nov 22;9:58, http://pmid.us/21092221.

[32] Sugiyama M et al. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Jun;57(6):743–52, http://pmid.us/12792658. Perissinotto E et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older lifelong wine drinkers: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 2010 Nov;20(9):647–55, http://pmid.us/19695851.

[33] Halton TL et al. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1991–2002, http://pmid.us/17093250.

[34] Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions. Journal of Nutrition 2001 Feb;131(2):340S–3S, http://pmid.us/11160558.

[35] Aarsland Aet al. Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 Jun;65(6):1774–82, http://pmid.us/9174472. Hat tip to geoff99.

[36] Strawford A et al. Adipose tissue triglyceride turnover, de novo lipogenesis, and cell proliferation in humans measured with 2H2O. American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004 Apr;286(4):E577–88, http://pmid.us/14600072.

Chapter 11: The Dangerous Fats: PUFA

[1] Hulbert AJ. On the importance of fatty acid composition of membranes for aging. Journal of Theoretical Biology 2005 May 21;234(2):277–88, http://pmid.us/15757684. Holman RT. Autoxidation of fats and related substances. In Progress in Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids, vol. 2, ed. Holman RT, Lundberg WO, Malkin T. Pergamon Press, London, 1954, 51–98.

[2] Hulbert AJ et al. Life and death: metabolic rate, membrane composition, and life span of animals. Physiological Reviews 2007 Oct;87(4):1175–213, http://pmid.us/17928583. Hulbert AJ. Metabolism and longevity: is there a role for membrane fatty acids? Integretive and Comparative Biology 2010 Nov;50(5):808–17, http://pmid.us/21558243.

[3] Rogge MM. The role of impaired mitochondrial lipid oxidation in obesity. Biological Research for Nursing 2009 Apr;10(4):356–73, http://pmid.us/19190032. Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: The adipostat balloon, October 12, 2011, http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2011/10/adipostat-ballon.html.

[4] Bailey SM, Cunningham CC. Contribution of mitochondria to oxidative stress associated with alcoholic liver disease. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 2002 Jan 1;32(1):11–6, http://pmid.us/11755312. Crescenzo R et al. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose. European Journal of Nutrition 2012 Apr 28, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/22543624.

[5] Hulbert AJ. Metabolism and longevity: is there a role for membrane fatty acids? Integretive and Comparative Biology 2010 Nov;50(5):808–17, http://pmid.us/21558243.

[6] Montgomery MK et al. The long life of birds: the rat-pigeon comparison revisited. PLoS One 2011;6(8):e24138, http://pmid.us/21904609.

[7] Hulbert AJ. Metabolism and longevity: is there a role for membrane fatty acids? Integretive and Comparative Biology 2010 Nov;50(5):808–17, http://pmid.us/21558243.

[8] Lynn WS, Brown RH. Oxidation and activation of unsaturated fatty acids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 1959 Apr;81(2):353–62, http://pmid.us/13637997.

[9] Kris-Etherton P et al. The debate about n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid recommendations for cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010 Feb;110(2):201–4, http://pmid.us/20102846.

[10] Cunnane SC. Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Progress in Lipid Research 2003 Nov;42(6):544–68, http://pmid.us/14559071.

[11] See Figure 1 of Holman RT. The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. Journal of Nutrition 1998 Feb;128(2 suppl):427S–433S, http://pmid.us/9478042.

[12] Holman RT. The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. Journal of Nutrition 1998 Feb;128(2 suppl):427S–433S, http://pmid.us/9478042.

[13] Jeppesen PB et al. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(1):126–133, http://pmid.us/9665106.

[14] Holman RT. The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. Journal of Nutrition 1998 Feb;128(2 suppl):427S–433S, http://pmid.us/9478042.

[15] Cunnane SC et al. Why is carbon from some polyunsaturates extensively recycled into lipid synthesis? Lipids 2003 Apr;38(4):477–84. http://pmid.us/12848297.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Angela Liou Y, Innis SM. Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2009 Apr;80(4):201–6, http://pmid.us/19356914.

[18] Friesen RW, Innis SM. Linoleic acid is associated with lower long-chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in red blood cell lipids of Canadian pregnant women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Jan;91(1):23–31, http://pmid.us/19923368.

[19] Novak EM et al. High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. Brain Research 2008 Oct 27;1237:136–45, http://pmid.us/18710653.

[20] Miettinen M et al. Effect of cholesterol-lowering diet on mortality from coronary heart-disease and other causes. A twelve-year clinical trial in men and women. The Lancet 1972 Oct 21;2(7782):835–8, http://pmid.us/4116551.

[21] Dayton S et al. A controlled clinical trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat. Circulation 1969; 40(suppl):1–63, http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/40/1S2/II-1.

[22] Sources: Stephan Guyenet, personal communication. Guyenet S. “Seed oils and body fatness—a problematic revisit,” August 21, 2011, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/08/seed-oils-and-body-fatness-problematic.html. Dayton S et al. Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat. The Journal of Lipid Research 1966 Jan;7(1):103–11, http://pmid.us/5900208. Baylin A et al. Adipose tissue biomarkers of fatty acid intake. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002 Oct;76(4):750–7, http://pmid.us/12324287. Witting LA, Lee L. Recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E: relation to dietary, erythrocyte and adipose tissue linoleate. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1975 Jun;28(6):577–83, http://pmid.us/1130317. Berry EM et al. The relationship of dietary fat to plasma lipid levels as studied by factor analysis of adipose tissue fatty acid composition in a free-living population of middle-aged American men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986 Aug;44(2):220–31, http://pmid.us/3728359. London SJ et al. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991 Aug;54(2):340–5, http://pmid.us/1858698. Garland M et al. The relation between dietary intake and adipose tissue composition of selected fatty acids in US women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998 Jan;67(1):25–30, http://pmid.us/9440371. Knutsen SF et al. Comparison of adipose tissue fatty acids with dietary fatty acids as measured by 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire in black and white Adventists: the Adventist Health Study. Annals of Epidemiology 2003 Feb;13(2):119–27, http://pmid.us/12559671. Ren J et al. Composition of adipose tissue and marrow fat in humans by 1H NMR at 7 Tesla. The Journal of Lipid Research 2008 Sep;49(9):2055–62, http://pmid.us/18509197.

[23] Rivera CA et al. Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency enhances non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. BMC Gastroenterology 2010 May 28;10(1):52, http://pmid.us/20509914.

[24] Nanji AA et al. Dietary saturated fatty acids: a novel treatment for alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1995 Aug;109(2):547–54, http://pmid.us/7615205.

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[26] Ronis MJ et al. Dietary saturated fat reduces alcoholic hepatotoxicity in rats by altering fatty acid metabolism and membrane composition. Journal of Nutrition 2004 Apr;134(4):904–12, http://pmid.us/15051845.

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[53] Tsuduki T. Long-term intake of fish oil increases oxidative stress and decreases lifespan in senescence-accelerated mice. Nutrition 2011 Mar;27(3):334–7, http://pmid.us/20621447.

[54] Burr ML et al. Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Feb;57(2):193–200, http://pmid.us/12571649.

[55] Lands WE. Dietary fat and health: the evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 2005 Dec;1055:179–92, http://pmid.us/16387724. Lands WE, Lifestyle diversity, http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/personal.html. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Omega fats and cardiovascular disease, September 6, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/09/omega-fats-and-cardiovascular-disease.html.

[56] Hibbeln JR et al. Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006 Jun;836(suppl):1483S–1493S, http://pmid.us/16841858.

[57] Watkins BA et al. Dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid: actions on bone mineral and serum biomarkers in ovariectomized rats. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2006 Apr;17(4):282–9, http://pmid.us/16102959. Watkins BA et al. Dietary ratio of (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids alters the fatty acid composition of bone compartments and biomarkers of bone formation in rats. Journal of Nutrition 2000 Sep;130(9):2274–84, http://pmid.us/10958824.

[58] Nemets B et al. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2002 Mar;159(3):477–9, http://pmid.us/11870016. Su KP et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2008 Apr;69(4):644–51, http://pmid.us/18370571. Su KP et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2003 Aug;13(4):267–71, http://pmid.us/12888186. Stoll AL et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 1999 May;56(5):407–12, http://pmid.us/10232294. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: The omega ratio, September 2, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/09/omega-ratio.html.

[59] Buydens-Branchey L et al. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568–75, http://pmid.us/18060675. Hamazaki T et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1996 Feb 15;97(4):1129–33, http://pmid.us/8613538. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2003 Jan;160(1):167–9, http://pmid.us/12505817. Hallahan B et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2007 Feb;190:118–22, http://pmid.us/17267927.

[60] Heller AR et al. Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine 2006 Apr;34(4):972–9. http://pmid.us/16484909.

[61] Lau BY, Ward WE, Kang JX, Ma DW. Vertebrae of developing fat-1 mice have greater strength and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. Experimental Medicine and Biology (Maywood) 2009 Jun;234(6):632–8. http://pmid.us/19307460.

[62] Gladman SJ et al. Improved outcome after peripheral nerve injury in mice with increased levels of endogenous ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Journal of Neuroscience 2012 Jan 11;32(2):563–71, http://pmid.us/22238091.

[63] Lebbadi M et al. Endogenous conversion of omega-6 into omega-3 fatty acids improves neuropathology in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2011;27(4):853–69, http://pmid.us/21914946.

[64] Bilal S et al. Fat–1 transgenic mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids are protected from allergic airway responses. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2011 Sep;1812(9):1164–9, http://pmid.us/21616147.

[65] Bellenger J et al.High pancreatic n-3 fatty acids prevent STZ-induced diabetes in fat-1 mice: inflammatory pathway inhibition. Diabetes 2011 Apr;60(4):1090–9, http://pmid.us/21330635.

[66] Connor KM et al. Increased dietary intake of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis. Nature Medicine 2007 Jul;13(7):868–73, http://pmid.us/17589522.

[67] Hudert CA et al. Transgenic mice rich in endogenous omega-3 fatty acids are protected from colitis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006 Jul 25;103(30):11276–81, http://pmid.us/16847262.

[68] Xia S et al. Melanoma growth is reduced in fat-1 transgenic mice: impact of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006 Aug 15;103(33):12499–504, http://pmid.us/16888035. Berquin IM et al. Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2007 Jul;117(7):1866–75, http://pmid.us/17607361. Habbel P et al. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses arachidonic acid-induced proliferation of LS-174T human colon carcinoma cells.World Journal of Gastroenterology 2009 Mar 7;15(9):1079–84, http://pmid.us/19266600. Griffitts J et al. Non-mammalian fat-1 gene prevents neoplasia when introduced to a mouse hepatocarcinogenesis model: Omega-3 fatty acids prevent liver neoplasia. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2010 Oct;1801(10):1133–44, http://pmid.us/20620224.

[69] de Lorgeril M et al. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 1999 Feb 16;99(6):779–85, http://pmid.us/9989963.

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[72] Lands WE et al. Maintenance of lower proportions of (n – 6) eicosanoid precursors in phospholipids of human plasma in response to added dietary (n – 3) fatty acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1992 Dec 10;1180(2):147–62, http://pmid.us/1463766.

[73] Lands WE. http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/dietbalance.html.

[74] Lands WE. http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/food2.html.

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Chapter 12: The Safe Fats: SaFA and MUFA

[1] Jouven X et al. Circulating nonesterified fatty acid level as a predictive risk factor for sudden death in the population. Circulation 2001 Aug 14;104(7):756–61, http://pmid.us/11502698.

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[3] Randy Roach, Splendid specimens: the history of nutrition in bodybuilding, December 13, 2004, www.westonaprice.org/men/splendidspecimens.html.

[4] Schwarzenegger workout, www.askmen.com/sports/bodybuilding_60/69b_fitness_tip.html.

[5] Bhasin S et al. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. The New England Journal of Medicine 1996 Jul 4;335(1):1–7, http://pmid.us/8637535.

[6] Wang C et al. Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2005 Jun;90(6):3550–9, http://pmid.us/15741266.

[7] Katorski B et al. Growth hormone effect on the role of fat in nitrogen metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 1965 Nov;209(5):910–2, http://pmid.us/5849491.

[8] Moller N et al. Growth hormone and protein metabolism. Clinical Nutrition 2009 Dec;28(6):597–603, http://pmid.us/19773097.

[9] Smith RG. From GH to Billy Ghrelin. Cell Metabolism 2009 Aug;10(2):82–3, http://pmid.us/19656485.

[10] Siri-Tarino PW et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Mar;91(3):535–46, http://pmid.us/20071648.

[11] Siri-Tarino PW et al. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Mar;91(3):502–9, http://pmid.us/20089734. Charles Bankhead, “Review Calls for Reevaluation of the Fat-CVD Link,” February 18, 2010, www.medpagetoday.com/Cardiology/Atherosclerosis/18538.

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[13] Gillman MW et al. Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1997 Dec 24–31;278(24):2145–50, http://pmid.us/9417007.

[14] Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 Nov;80(5):1175–84, http://pmid.us/15531663. Hat tip to Richard D Feinman: What if saturated fat is not the problem?, February 16, 2011, www.dlife.com/diabetes-food-and-fitness/what_do_i_eat/fats/what_if_saturated_fat_not_problem.

Chapter 13: Medium-Chain Fats and Therapeutic Ketogenic Diets

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[3] Bergsson G et al. In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2001 Nov;45(11):3209–12, http://pmid.us/11600381. Liu S et al. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids. Mycopathologia 2008 Aug;166(2):93–102, http://pmid.us/18443921.

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[5] Van Immerseel F et al. Medium-chain fatty acids decrease colonization and invasion through hilA suppression shortly after infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004 Jun;70(6):3582–7, http://pmid.us/15184160. Gantois I et al. Butyrate specifically down-regulates salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2006 Jan;72(1):946–9, http://pmid.us/16391141.

[6] Nakatsuji T et al. Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2009 Oct;129(10):2480–8, http://pmid.us/19387482.

[7] Zhang H et al. Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components. Journal of Food Science 2009 Sep;74(7):M418–21, http://pmid.us/19895490.

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[10] Thormar H et al. Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987 Jan;31(1):27–31, http://pmid.us/3032090. Isaacs CE. The antimicrobial function of milk lipids. Advances in Nutritional Research 2001;10:271–85, http://pmid.us/11795045.

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[12] Willett WC. Ask the doctor: I have heard that coconut is bad for the heart and that it is good for the heart. Which is right? Harvard Heart Letter 2006 Sep;17(1):8, http://pmid.us/17133658.

[13] Austin MA et al. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1988 Oct 7;260(13):1917–21, http://pmid.us/3418853.

[14] El Harchaoui K et al. Value of low-density lipoprotein particle number and size as predictors of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007 Feb 6;49(5):547–53, http://pmid.us/17276177.

[15] Boizel R et al. Ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol is an indicator of LDL particle size in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal HDL cholesterol levels. Diabetes Care 2000 Nov;23(11):1679–85, http://pmid.us/11092292.

[16] Xue C et al. Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Jul;63(7):879–86, http://pmid.us/19156155.

[17] See anecdotal reports at http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2009/10/low-carb-paleo-nothings-impossible.html.

[18] Veech RL. The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2004 Mar;70(3):309–19, http://pmid.us/14769489.

[19] Kaunitz H. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in aging and arteriosclerosis. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 1986 Mar–Apr;6(3–4):115–21, http://pmid.us/3519928.

[20] Lindeberg S et al. Haemostatic variables in Pacific Islanders apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease—the Kitava Study. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1997 Jan;77(1):94–8, http://pmid.us/9031456.

[21] Prior IA et al. The Tokelau Island migrant study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1974 Sep;3(3):225–32, http://pmid.us/4416612. Stanhope JM et al. The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: serum lipid concentration in two environments. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1981;34(2–3):45–55. http://pmid.us/7462380. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: cholesterol and cardiovascular health, January 14, 2009, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/01/tokelau-island-migrant-study.html.

[22] Plaisance EP et al. Niacin stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPR109A receptor. American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009 Mar;296(3):E549–58, http://pmid.us/19141678. Ahmed K et al. GPR109A, GPR109B and GPR81, a family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2009 Nov;30(11):557–62, http://pmid.us/19837462.

[23] Xue C et al. Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Jul;63(7):879–86, http://pmid.us/19156155.

[24] Assunção ML et al. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 2009 Jul;44(7):593–601, http://pmid.us/19437058.

[25] Lindeberg S et al. Haemostatic variables in Pacific Islanders apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease—the Kitava Study. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1997 Jan;77(1):94–8, http://pmid.us/9031456.

[26] Kang HC et al. Safe and effective use of the ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex defects. Epilepsia 2007 Jan;48(1):82–8, http://pmid.us/17241212.

[27] Bank IM et al. Sudden cardiac death in association with the ketogenic diet. Pediatric Neurology 2008 Dec;39(6):429–31, http://pmid.us/19027591.

[28] Willmott NS, Bryan RA. Case report: scurvy in an epileptic child on a ketogenic diet with oral complications. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2008 Sep;9(3):148–52, http://pmid.us/18793598.

[29] Hardy G, Puzovic M. Formulation, stability, and administration of parenteral nutrition with new lipid emulsions. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2009 Oct-Nov;24(5):616–25, http://pmid.us/19841249.

[30] Suzuki M et al. Effect of ß-hydroxybutyrate, a cerebral function improving agent, on cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, and ischaemia in mice and rats. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 2001 Oct;87(2):143–50, http://pmid.us/11700013. White H, Venkatesh B. Clinical review: ketones and brain injury. Critical Care 2011 Apr 6;15(2):219, http://pmid.us/21489321.

[31] Ketogenic diet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketogenic_diet.

[32] Gasior M et al. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behavioural Pharmacology 2006 Sep;17(5–6):431–9, http://pmid.us/16940764/.

[33] Samoilova M et al. Chronic in vitro ketosis is neuroprotective but not anticonvulsant. Journal of Neurochemistry 2010 May;113(4):826–35, http://pmid.us/20163521.

[34] Maalouf M et al. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies. Brain Research Reviews 2009 Mar;59(2):293–315, http://pmid.us/18845187.

[35] Low-carb diet speeds recovery from spinal cord injury. ScienceDaily, October 22, 2009, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091020162237.htm.

[36] Tai KK et al. Ketogenic diet prevents cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration. Journal of Neural Transmission 2008 Jul;115(7):1011–7, http://pmid.us/18478178.

[37] Kossoff EH. More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapies for epilepsy. The Lancet Neurology 2004 Jul;3(7):415–20, http://pmid.us/15207798.

[38] Cheng B et al. Ketogenic diet protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity via up-regulating glutathione in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Research 2009 Aug 25;1286:25–31, http://pmid.us/19559687.

[39] Henderson ST et al. Study of the ketogenic agent AC–1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Nutrition & Metabolism 2009 Aug 10;6:31, http://pmid.us/19664276. Costantini LC et al. Hypometabolism as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Neuroscience 2008 Dec 3;9(suppl 2):S16, http://pmid.us/19090989.

[40] Zhao Z et al. A ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMC Neuroscience 2006 Apr 3;7:29, http://pmid.us/16584562http://pmid.us/16584562. Barañano KW, Hartman AL. The ketogenic diet: uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2008 Nov;10(6):410–9, http://pmid.us/18990309.

[41] You SJ et al. Factors influencing the evolution of West syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Pediatric Neurology 2009 Aug;41(2):111–3, http://pmid.us/19589458.

[42] Evangeliou A et al. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study. Journal of Child Neurology 2003 Feb;18(2):113–18, http://pmid.us/12693778.

[43] Murphy P et al. The antidepressant properties of the ketogenic diet. Biological Psychiatry 2004 Dec 15;56(12):981–3, http://pmid.us/15601609.

[44] El-Mallakh RS, Paskitti ME. The ketogenic diet may have mood-stabilizing properties. Medical Hypotheses 2001 Dec;57(6):724–6, http://pmid.us/11918434.

[45] Kraft BD, Westman EC. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature. Nutrition & Metabolism 2009 Feb 26;6:10, http://pmid.us/19245705.

[46] Seyfried TN, Shelton LM. Cancer as a metabolic disease. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010, 7:7, www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/pdf/1743-7075-7-7.pdf.

[47] Nebeling LC, Lerner E. Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1995 Jun;95(6):693–7, http://pmid.us/7759747.

[48] Seyfried BT et al. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 2009 Sep;5(suppl 1):S7–15, http://pmid.us/20009300.

[49] Nebeling LC et al. Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1995 Apr;14(2):202–8, http://pmid.us/7790697.

[50] Schmidt M et al. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: a pilot trial. Nutrition & Metabolism 2011 Jul 27;8(1):54, http://pmid.us/21794124.

[51] Pavlides S et al. Warburg meets autophagy: cancer-associated fibroblasts accelerate tumor growth and metastasis via oxidative stress, mitophagy, and aerobic glycolysis. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2012 Jun 1;16(11):1264–84, http://pmid.us/21883043.

[52] Lee C, Longo VD. Fasting vs dietary restriction in cellular protection and cancer treatment: from model organisms to patients. Oncogene 2011 Jul 28;30(30):3305–16, http://pmid.us/21516129. Raffaghello L et al. Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients. Cell Cycle 2010 Nov 15;9(22):4474–6, http://pmid.us/21088487. Johnson JB et al. Pretreatment with alternate day modified fast will permit higher dose and frequency of cancer chemotherapy and better cure rates. Medical Hypotheses 2009 Apr;72(4):381–2, http://pmid.us/19135806. Hat tip to Mario Renato Iwakura.

[53] Groesbeck DK et al. Long-term use of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2006 Dec;48(12):978–81, http://pmid.us/17109786. Hat tip Evelyn Kocur (aka CarbSane).

[54] Freeman JM et al. A blinded, crossover study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2009 Feb;50(2):322–5, http://pmid.us/18717710. Hat tip to Pål Jåbekk: Ketogenic diets and the treatment of epilepsy, May 10, 2010,  http://ramblingsofacarnivore.blogspot.com/2010/05/ketogenic-diets-and-treatment-of.html.

[55] Evangeliou A et al. Branched chain amino acids as adjunctive therapy to ketogenic diet in epilepsy: pilot study and hypothesis. Journal of Child Neurology 2009 Oct;24(10):1268–72, http://pmid.us/19687389.

Chapter 14: Fiber

[1] The Human Microbiome Project, NIH, http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp/.

[2] Qin J et al. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):59–65, http://pmid.us/20203603.

[3] Jaminet P. Bowel disease, part IV: restoring healthful gut flora, July 27, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2010/07/bowel-disease-part-iv-restoring-healthful-gut-flora/. Jaminet P. More on fecal transplants, November 3, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2010/11/more-on-fecal-transplants/.

[4] Quoted in Scientists learn more about how roughage keeps you “regular,” August 23, 2006, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060823093156.htm. Hat tip to Dr. Michael Eades: A cautionary tale of mucus fore and aft, August 30, 2006, www.proteinpower.com/drmike/uncategorized/a-cautionary-tale-of-mucus-fore-and-aft/.

[5] Burr ML et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). The Lancet 1989 Sep 30;2(8666):757–61, http://pmid.us/2571009. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: DART: many lessons learned, October 20, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/10/dart-many-lessons-learned.html.

[6] Andoh A et al. Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2003;9(4):347–58, http://pmid.us/12570825.

[7] McNeil NI. The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984 Feb;39(2):338–42, http://pmid.us/6320630.

[8] Gao Z et al. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes 2009 Jul;58(7):1509–17, http://pmid.us/19366864. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Butyric acid: an ancient controller of metabolism, inflammation and stress resistance, December 7, 2009, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/12/butyric-acid-ancient-controller-of.html, for links to this and other papers cited below.

[9] Di Sabatino A et al. Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2005 Nov 1;22(9):789–94, http://pmid.us/16225487. Scheppach W et al. Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1992 Jul;103(1):51–6, http://pmid.us/1612357. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Butyric acid: an ancient controller of metabolism, inflammation and stress resistance, December 7, 2009, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/12/butyric-acid-ancient-controller-of.html.

[10] Suzuki T et al. Physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids immediately suppress colonic epithelial permeability. British Journal of Nutrition 2008 Aug;100(2):297–305, http://pmid.us/18346306.

[11] Holma R et al. Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. Journal of Nutrition 2010 Mar;140(3):534–41, http://pmid.us/20089780.

[12] Whitehead RH et al. Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM1215). Gut 1986 Dec;27(12):1457–63, http://pmid.us/3804021.

[13] Scharlau D et al. Mechanisms of primary cancer prevention by butyrate and other products formed during gut flora–mediated fermentation of dietary fibre. Mutation Research 2009 Jul-Aug;682(1):39–53, http://pmid.us/19383551.

[14] Kolar SS et al. Docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate synergistically induce colonocyte apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Cancer Research 2007 Jun 1;67(11):5561–8, http://pmid.us/17545640.

[15] Ferrante RJ et al. Histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate chemotherapy ameliorates the neurodegenerative phenotype in Huntington’s disease mice. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9418–27, http://pmid.us/14561870.

[16] Kumar C et al. Modulatory effect of butyric acid—a product of dietary fiber fermentation in experimentally induced diabetic rats. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2002 Sep;13(9):522, http://pmid.us/12231422.

[17] Säemann MD et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production. The FASEB Journal 2000 Dec;14(15):2380–2, http://pmid.us/11024006.

[18] Lionetti V et al. Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2010 Mar 26;285(13):9949–61, http://pmid.us/20097747.

[19] Smith JG et al. Butyric acid from the diet: actions at the level of gene expression. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1998 May;38(4):259–97, http://pmid.us/9626487. Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: The human colon in evolution: part 4, the secrets of butyrate, May 20, 2011, http://huntgatherlove.com/content/human-colon-evolution-part–4-secrets-butyrate.

[20] O’Keefe SJ et al. Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1999 May;94(5):1373–80, http://pmid.us/10235221.

[21] Wu H et al. Dietary fiber and progression of atherosclerosis: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Dec;78(6):1085–91, http://pmid.us/14668268.

[22] Håkansson A et al. Blueberry husks, rye bran and multi-strain probiotics affect the severity of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2009;44(10):1213–25, http://pmid.us/19670079.

[23] Brandl K et al. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci exploit antibiotic-induced innate immune deficits. Nature 2008 Oct 9;455(7214):804–7, http://pmid.us/18724361. Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Fats and absorbing endotoxin, February 23, 2009, http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2009/02/fats-absorbing-endotoxin.html.

[24] Mandalari G et al. Potential prebiotic properties of almond (Amygdalus communis L.) seeds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008 Jul;74(14):4264–70, http://pmid.us/18502914.

[25] Ruas-Madiedo P et al. Mucin degradation by Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008 Mar;74(6):1936–40, http://pmid.us/18223105.

[26] Macfarlane S et al. Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005 Nov;71(11):7483–92, http://pmid.us/16269790.

[27] Gross LS et al. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 May;79(5):774–9, http://pmid.us/15113714.

[28] Beresford SA et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2006 Feb 8;295(6):643–54, http://pmid.us/16467233. Hat tip Melissa McEwen, The human colon in evolution: part 2, fiber follies, http://huntgatherlove.com/content/human-colon-evolution-part-2-fiber-follies.

[29] Park Y et al. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011 Jun 27;171(12):1061–8, http://pmid.us/21321288.

Chapter 15: Alcohol

[1] Holahan CJ et al. Late-life alcohol consumption and 20-year mortality. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2010 Nov;34(11):1961–71, http://pmid.us/20735372. Hat tip to Robin Hanson: Alcohol is healthy, September 2, 2010, www.overcomingbias.com/2010/09/alcohol-is-healthy.html.

[2] Di Castelnuovo A et al. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: an updated meta-analysis of 34 prospective studies. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 Dec 11–25;166(22):2437–45, http://pmid.us/17159008. Camargo CA et al. Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997 Jan 13;157(1):79–85, http://pmid.us/8996044. Yuan JM et al. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China. BMJ 1997 Jan 4;314(7073):18–23, http://pmid.us/9001474. Doll R et al. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 1994 Oct 8;309(6959):911–8, http://pmid.us/7950661. Hat tip to David J. Hanson: Alcohol problems and solutions, www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/AlcoholAndHealth.html.

[3] Barefoot JC et al. Alcoholic beverage preference, diet, and health habits in the UNC Alumni Heart Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002 Aug;76(2):466–72, http://pmid.us/12145024.

[4] Fillmore KM et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality. I. Characteristics of drinking groups. Addiction 1998 Feb;93(2):183–203, http://pmid.us/9624721.

[5] Holahan CJ et al. Wine consumption and 20-year mortality among late-life moderate drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2012 Jan;73(1):80–8, http://pmid.us/22152665.

[6] Green CA, Polen MR. The health and health behaviors of people who do not drink alcohol. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001 Nov;21(4):298–305, http://pmid.us/11701301.

[7] Sluik D et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. British Journal of Nutrition 2012 Oct;108(7):1307-15, http://pmid.us/22172339.

[8] Nanji AA et al. Dietary saturated fatty acids: a novel treatment for alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1995 Aug;109(2):547–54, http://pmid.us/7615205. You M et al. Role of adiponectin in the protective action of dietary saturated fat against alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Hepatology 2005 Sep;42(3):568–77, http://pmid.us/16108051. Ronis MJ et al. Dietary saturated fat reduces alcoholic hepatotoxicity in rats by altering fatty acid metabolism and membrane composition. Journal of Nutrition 2004 Apr;134(4):904–12, http://pmid.us/15051845.

[9] Mutlu E et al. Intestinal dysbiosis: a possible mechanism of alcohol-induced endotoxemia and alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2009 Oct;33(10):1836–46, http://pmid.us/19645728.

[10] Cani PD et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 2008 Jun;57(6):1470–81, http://pmid.us/18305141.

[11] Waladkhani AR et al. Effect of methionine on the fatty acid composition of cellular membranes in rats with chronic ethanol consumption and jejunoileal bypass. Alcohol and Alcoholism 1996 Sep;31(5):463–9, http://pmid.us/8949962.

[12] Lieber CS. Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease. Alcohol Research & Health 2003;27(3):220–31, http://pmid.us/15535450. Sprince H et al. Protective action of ascorbic acid and sulfur compounds against acetaldehyde toxicity: implications in alcoholism and smoking. Agents & Actions 1975 May;5(2):164–73, http://pmid.us/1171591. Watanabe A et al. Lowering of blood acetaldehyde but not ethanol concentrations by pantethine following alcohol ingestion: different effects in flushing and nonflushing subjects. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1985 May–Jun;9(3):272–6, http://pmid.us/3893199. Hat tip to Wyatt: http://highbrowpaleo.com/2011/12/26/the-highbrow-paleo-guide-to-binge-drinking-mitigating-the-deleterious-effects-of-ethanol-on-health-or-how-to-get-shitfaced-with-impunity/.

Chapter 16: The Best Foods for Energy

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Chapter 17: Nutrient Hunger: A Key to Weight Loss

[1] Pollan M. Unhappy meals. The New York Times Magazine, January 28, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/magazine/28nutritionism.t.html.

[2] Precope J. Hippocrates on diet and hygiene. London: Zeno, 1952. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: The diet trap revisited: yo-yo effect, decreased basal metabolic rate and the myth of fat-free mass losses. Plus: gender discrimination and the “diabetic advantage,” April 14, 2012, http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2012/04/diet-trap-revisited-yo-yo-effect.html.

[3] Sumithran P et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011 Oct 27;365(17):1597–604, http://pmid.us/22029981. Parker-Pope T. The fat trap. The New York Times Magazine, December 28, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2012/01/01/magazine/tara-parker-pope-fat-trap.html.

[4] Dulloo AG et al. Pathways from weight fluctuations to metabolic diseases: focus on maladaptive thermogenesis during catch-up fat. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2002 Sep;26(suppl 2):S46–57, http://pmid.us/12174328.

[5] Stice E et al. Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999 Dec;67(6):967–74, http://pmid.us/10596518. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: The diet trap revisited: yo-yo effect, decreased basal metabolic rate and the myth of fat-free mass losses. Plus: gender discrimination and the “diabetic advantage,” April 14, 2012, http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2012/04/diet-trap-revisited-yo-yo-effect.html.

[6] Moy FM, Bulgiba A. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 2011 Sep 27;11:735, http://pmid.us/21943301.

[7] Hyppönen E et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF11, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Diabetes 2008 Feb;57(2):298–305, http://pmid.us/18003755.

[8] Takaya J et al. Intracellular magnesium of obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus children. Diabetes Therapy 2010 Aug;1(1):25–31, http://pmid.us/22127671.

[9] Moschonis G et al. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study. British Journal of Nutrition 2012 Aug;108(4):710-9, http://pmid.us/22088365.

[10] de Luis DA. Zinc and copper serum levels of morbidly obese patients before and after biliopancreatic diversion: 4 years of follow-up. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 2011 Dec;15(12):2178–81, http://pmid.us/21826547.

[11] Alasfar F et al. Selenium is significantly depleted among morbidly obese female patients seeking bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery 2011 Nov;21(11):1710–3, http://pmid.us/21633821.

[12] Jaminet P. “Around the Web; the case of the killer vitamins,” October 15, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/10/around-the-web-the-case-of-the-killer-vitamins/. Analyzing this study: Mursu J et al. Dietary supplements and mortality rate in older women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011 Oct 10;171(18):1625–33, http://pmid.us/21987192.

[13] Li Y et al. Effects of multivitamin and mineralsupplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women. International Journal of Obesity 2010 Jun;34(6):1070–7, http://pmid.us/20142823.

[14] Nachtigal MC et al. Dietary supplements and weight control in a middle-age population. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2005 Oct;11(5):909–15, http://pmid.us/16296926.

[15] Major GC et al. Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Nutrition 2008 May;99(5):1157–67, http://pmid.us/17977472. Hat tip to J. Stanton.

Chapter 18: Food Toxins

[1] Median lethal dose. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_lethal_dose.

[2] Ames BN, Gold LS. Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction. Mutation Research 2000 Jan 17;447(1):3–13, http://pmid.us/10686303.

[3] Erbguth FJ. From poison to remedy: the chequered history of botulinum toxin. Journal of Neural Transmission 2008;115(4):559–65, http://pmid.us/17458494.

[4] Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA. The frequency of U-shaped dose responses in the toxicological literature. Toxicological Sciences 2001 Aug;62(2):330–8, http://pmid.us/11452146.

[5] Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases: implications for new treatment of celiac disease. Annals of Medicine 2009;41(5):390–400, http://pmid.us/19353359.

[6] Chu M, Seltzer TF. Myxedema coma induced by ingestion of raw bok choy. The New England Journal of Medicine 2010 May 20;362(20):1945–6, http://pmid.us/20484407.

Chapter 19: The Most Toxic Food: Cereal Grains

[1] Cordain L. Cereal grains: humanity’s double-edged sword. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 1999;84:19–73, refs. 1 and 3.

[2] Cummings JH. The effect of dietary fibre on fecal weight and composition. In Handbook of dietary fibre in human nutrition, 2nd ed., ed. Spiller GA. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1993, 547–73.

[3] http://nutritiondata.com.

[4] Gluten composition, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluten. Howdle PD. Gliadin, glutenin or both? The search for the Holy Grail in coeliac disease. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2006 Jul;18(7):703–6, http://pmid.us/16772825.

[5] Rivabene R et al. In vitro cytotoxic effect of wheat gliadin-derived peptides on the Caco-2 intestinal cell line is associated with intracellular oxidative imbalance: implications for coeliac disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1999 Jan 6;1453(1):152–60, http://pmid.us/9989255; Elli L et al. Gliadin cytotoxicity and in vitro cell cultures. Toxicology Letters 2003 Dec 15;146(1):1–8, http://pmid.us/14615062.

[6] Ciclitira PJ, Ellis HJ.In vivo gluten ingestion in coeliac disease. Digestive Diseases 1998 Nov-Dec;16(6):337–40, http://pmid.us/10207218.

[7] Bernardo D et al. Is gliadin really safe for non-coeliac individuals? Production of interleukin 15 in biopsy culture from non-coeliac individuals challenged with gliadin peptides. Gut 2007 Jun;56(6):889–90, http://pmid.us/17519496. Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Gluten links from Bloggeier, May 22, 2008, http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2008/05/gluten-links-from-bloggeier.html.

[8] Bernardo D et al. Is gliadin really safe for non-coeliac individuals? Production of interleukin 15 in biopsy culture from non-coeliac individuals challenged with gliadin peptides. Gut 2007 Jun;56(6):889–90, http://pmid.us/17519496.

[9] Guyenet S. Gluten sensitivity: celiac disease is the tip of the iceberg, December 8, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/12/gluten-sensitivity-celiac-disease-is.html, quoting Dr. Kenneth Fine of EnteroLab; see the transcript of Dr. Fine’s talk at https://www.enterolab.com/StaticPages/EarlyDiagnosis.htm.

[10] Sollid LM, Jabri B. Is celiac disease an autoimmune disorder? Current Opinion in Immunology 2005 Dec;17(6):595–600, http://pmid.us/16214317.

[11] Ch’ng CL et al. Celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease. Clinical Medicine & Research 2007 October; 5(3): 184–192, http://pmid.us/18056028. Naiyer AJ et al. Tissue transglutaminase antibodies in individuals with celiac disease bind to thyroid follicles and extracellular matrix and may contribute to thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid 2008 Nov;18(11):1171–8, http://pmid.us/19014325.

[12] MacFarlane AJ et al. A type 1 diabetes-related protein from wheat (Triticum aestivum). cDNA clone of a wheat storage globulin, Glb1, linked to islet damage. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003 Jan 3;278(1):54–63, http://pmid.us/12409286.

[13] Ventura A et al. Gluten-dependent diabetes-related and thyroid-related autoantibodies in patients with celiac disease. Journal of Pediatrics 2000;137:263–265, http://pmid.us/10931424.

[14] Sategna-Guidetti C et al. Binding by serum IgA antibodies from patients with coeliac disease to monkey heart tissue. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2004 Jun;39(6):540–3, http://pmid.us/15223677.

[15] Lammers KM et al. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Gastroenterology 2008 Jul;135(1):194–204.e3, http://pmid.us/18485912. Drago S et al. Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2006 Apr;41(4):408–19, http://pmid.us/16635908.

[16] Fasano A. Systemic autoimmune disorders in celiac disease. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2006 Nov;22(6):674–9, http://pmid.us/17053448. See also: Sapone A et al. Zonulin upregulation is associated with increased gut permeability in subjects with type 1 diabetes and their relatives. Diabetes 2006 May;55(5):1443–9, http://pmid.us/16644703.

[17] Askling J et al. Cancer incidence in a population-based cohort of individuals hospitalized with celiac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis. Gastroenterology 2002 Nov;123(5):1428–35, http://pmid.us/12404215. West J et al. Malignancy and mortality in people with coeliac disease: population based cohort study. BMJ 2004 Sep 25;329(7468):716–9, http://pmid.us/15269095. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Celiac and fat-soluble vitamins, June 30, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/06/more-fat-soluble-vitamin-musing-ii.html.

[18] Hoggan R. Considering wheat, rye, and barley proteins as aids to carcinogens. Medical Hypotheses 1997 Sep;49(3):285–8, http://pmid.us/9293475.

[19] Hadjivassiliou M et al. Dietary treatment of gluten neuropathy. Muscle & Nerve 2006 Dec; 34(6):762–6, http://pmid.us/17013890.

[20] Dickey W et al. Reliance on serum endomysial antibody testing underestimates the true prevalence of coeliac disease by one fifth. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2000 Feb;35(2):181–3, http://pmid.us/10720117.

[21] Jaminet P. The China Study: evidence for the Perfect Health Diet, July 9, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=166. Hat tip to Denise Minger: The China Study: fact or fallacy?, http://rawfoodsos.com/2010/07/07/the-china-study-fact-or-fallac/.

[22] Zioudrou C et al. Opioid peptides derived from food proteins: the exorphins. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1979 Apr 10;254(7):2446–9, http://pmid.us/372181. Huebner FR et al. Demonstration of high opioid-like activity in isolated peptides from wheat gluten hydrolysates. Peptides 1984 Nov–Dec;5(6):1139–47, http://pmid.us/6099562. Fukudome S, Yoshikawa M. Opioid peptides derived from wheat gluten: their isolation and characterization. FEBS Letters 1992 Jan 13;296(1):107–11, http://pmid.us/1309704.

[23] Kalaydjian AE et al. The gluten connection: the association between schizophrenia and celiac disease. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2006 Feb;113(2):82–90, http://pmid.us/16423158.

[24] Singh MM et al Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia. Science 1976 Jan 30;191(4225):401–2, http://pmid.us/1246624.

[25] Dohan FC et al 1984 Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare? Biological Psychiatry 1984 Mar;19(3):385–99, http://pmid.us/6609726.

[26] Kraft BD, Westman EC. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature. Nutrition & Metabolism 2009 Feb 26;6:10, http://pmid.us/19245705.

[27] Ross-Smith P, Jenner FA. Diet (gluten) and schizophrenia. Journal of Human Nutrition 1980 Apr;34(2):107–12, http://pmid.us/6989901.

[28] Zagon IS et al. Opioid growth factor-opioid growth factor receptor axis is a physiological determinant of cell proliferation in diverse human cancers. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2009 Oct;297(4):R1154–61, http://pmid.us/19675283.

[29] Fanciulli G et al. Gluten exorphin B5 stimulates prolactin secretion through opioid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier. Life Sciences 2005 Feb 25;76(15):1713–9, http://pmid.us/15698850. Hat tip to Dr. BG: Wheat: would you give your kids crack?, May 31, 2008, http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2008/05/wheat-would-you-give-your-kids-crack.html.

[30] Teschemacher H. Opioid receptor ligands derived from food proteins. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2003;9(16):1331–44, http://pmid.us/12769741.

[31] Dalla Pellegrina C et al. Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2009 Jun 1;237(2):146–53, http://pmid.us/19332085.

[32] Lorenzsonn V, Olsen WA. In vivo responses of rat intestinal epithelium to intraluminal dietary lectins. Gastroenterology 1982 May;82(5 Pt 1):838–48, http://pmid.us/6895878.

[33] Sjölander A et al. Morphological changes of rat small intestine after short-time exposure to concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin. Cell Structure and Function 1986 Sep;11(3):285–93, http://pmid.us/3768964.

[34] Lochner N et al. Wheat germ agglutinin binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor of artificial Caco-2 membranes as detected by silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence. Pharmacological Research 2003 May;20(5):833–9, http://pmid.us/12751642. Pusztai A et al. Antinutritive effects of wheat-germ agglutinin and other N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins. British Journal of Nutrition 1993 Jul;70(1):313–21, http://pmid.us/8399111. Pusztai A et al. Specific uptake of dietary lectins into the systemic circulation of rats. Biochemical Society Transactions 1989;17, 527–528.

[35] Jönsson T et al. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence—do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance? BMC Endocrine Disorders 2005 Dec 10;5:10, http://pmid.us/16336696.

[36] Scarpace PJ, Zhang Y. Leptin resistance: a prediposing factor for diet-induced obesity. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2009 Mar;296(3):R493–500, http://pmid.us/19091915.

[37] Cuatrecasas P, Tell GP. Insulin-like activity of concanavalin a and wheat germ agglutinin—direct interactions with insulin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1973 February;70(2):485–489, http://pmid.us/4510292.

[38] Lavelle EC et al. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity. Immunology 2001 Jan;102(1):77–86, http://pmid.us/11168640.

[39] Sodhi A, Kesherwani V. Production of TNF-alpha, IL–1beta, IL–12 and IFN-gamma in murine peritoneal macrophages on treatment with wheat germ agglutinin in vitro: involvement of tyrosine kinase pathways. Glycoconjugate Journal 2007 Dec;24(9):573–82, http://pmid.us/17668318.

[40] Dubois B et al. Regulation of gelatinase B (MMP–9) in leukocytes by plant lectins. FEBS Letters 1998 May 8;427(2):275–8, http://pmid.us/9607327.

[41] Freed DL. Do dietary lectins cause disease? BMJ 1999 Apr 17;318(7190):1023–4, http://pmid.us/10205084.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Mellanby E. (March 15 1919) An experimental investigation on rickets. The Lancet 193(4985):407–412. Reprinted in Nutrition 1989 Mar–Apr;5(2):81–6; discussion 87, http://pmid.us/2520279.

[44] Berlyne GM et al. Bedouin osteomalacia due to calcium deprivation caused by high phytic acid content of unleavened bread. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1973 Sep;26(9):910–1, http://pmid.us/4727748.

[45] Pettifor JM. Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 Dec;80(6)suppl:1725S–9S, http://pmid.us/15585795. Thacher TD et al. Case-control study of factors associated with nutritional rickets in Nigerian children. Journal of Pediatrics 2000 Sep;137(3):367–73, http://pmid.us/10969262.

[46] Robertson I et al. The role of cereals in the aetiology of nutritional rickets: the lesson of the Irish National Nutrition Survey 1943–8. British Journal of Nutrition 1981 Jan;45(1):17–22, http://pmid.us/6970590.

[47] Huff WE et al. Research on the probable cause of an outbreak of field rickets in turkeys. Poultry Science 1999 Dec;78(12):1699–702, http://pmid.us/10626644.

[48] Thapa BR. Celiac disease in India. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1999;66(1)suppl:S16–20, http://pmid.us/11132463. See also Rawashdeh MO et al. Celiac disease in Arabs. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1996 Nov;23(4):415–8, http://pmid.us/8956178.

[49] Zoppi G et al. Potential complications in the use of wheat bran for constipation in infancy. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1982;1(1):91–5, http://pmid.us/6310074.

[50] Berlyne, GM et al. Bedouin osteomalacia due to calcium deprivation caused by high phytic acid content of unleavened bread. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1973 Sep;26(9):910–1, http://pmid.us/4727748. Harinarayan, CV et al. High prevalence of low dietary calcium, high phytate consumption, and vitamin D deficiency in healthy south Indians. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Apr;85(4):1062–7, http://pmid.us/17413106.

[51] Batchelor AJ, Compston JE. Reduced plasma half-life of radio-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in subjects receiving a high-fibre diet. British Journal of Nutrition 1983 Mar;49(2):213–6, http://pmid.us/6299329. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Celiac and fat-soluble vitamins, June 30, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/06/more-fat-soluble-vitamin-musing-ii.html.

[52] Miyauchi Y et al. Importin 4 is responsible for ligand-independent nuclear translocation of vitamin D receptor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005 Dec 9;280(49):40901–8, http://pmid.us/16207705.

[53] Xu Y et al. Using a cDNA microarray to study cellular gene expression altered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chinese Medical Journal 2003 Jul;116(7):1070–3, http://pmid.us/12890386.

[54] Salazar JC et al. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta. PLoS Pathogens 2009 May;5(5):e1000444, http://pmid.us/19461888.

[55] Yenamandra SP et al. Expression profile of nuclear receptors upon Epstein-Barr virus induced B cell transformation. Experimental Oncology 2009 Jun;31(2):92–6, http://pmid.us/19550398.

[56] Taki Y et al. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children. PLoS One 2010 Dec 8;5(12):e15213, http://pmid.us/21170334. Hat tip to Emily Deans: Wheat, rice, and children’s brains, July 12, 2011, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2011/07/wheat-rice-and-childrens-brains.html.

[57] Andersson U et al. Metabolic effects of whole grain wheat and whole grain rye in the C57BL/6J mouse. Nutrition 2010 Feb;26(2):230–9, http://pmid.us/19647415.

[58] Lanska DJ. Chapter 30 Historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 2009;95:445–76, http://pmid.us/19892133.

[59] Carpenter KJ, Lewin WJ. A critical review: A reexamination of the composition of diets associated with pellagra. Journal of Nutrition 1985 May;115(5):543–552, http://pmid.us/3998856.

[60] Ebringer A et al. A possible link between Crohn’s disease and ankylosing spondylitis via Klebsiella infections. Clinical Rheumatology 2007 Mar;26(3):289–97, http://pmid.us/16941202. Fielder M et al. Molecular mimicry and ankylosing spondylitis: possible role of a novel sequence in pullulanase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. FEBS Letters 1995 Aug 7;369(2–3):243–8, http://pmid.us/7649265. Rashid T et al. Role of Klebsiella and collagens in Crohn’s disease: a new prospect in the use of low-starch diet. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2009 Aug;21(8):843–9, http://pmid.us/19352192. Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Food pyramids, food and pyramids, November 2, 2006, http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.com/2006/11/food-pyramids-food-and-pyramids.html.

[61] Mathieu A et al. The interplay between the geographic distribution of HLA-B27 alleles and their role in infectious and autoimmune diseases: a unifying hypothesis. Autoimmunity Reviews 2009 Mar;8(5):420–5, http://pmid.us/19185064.

Chapter 20: Almost-Grains: Legumes

[1] Greer F, Pusztai A. Toxicity of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in rats: changes in intestinal permeability. Digestion 1985;32(1):42–6, http://pmid.us/4018443.

[2] Kordás K et al. Phytohaemagglutinin inhibits gastric acid but not pepsin secretion in conscious rats. Journal of Physiology—Paris 2001 Jan–Dec;95(1–6):309–14, http://pmid.us/11595455.

[3] Pusztai A et al. Kidney bean lectin–induced Escherichia coli overgrowth in the small intestine is blocked by GNA, a mannose-specific lectin. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1993 Oct;75(4):360–8, http://pmid.us/8226393.

[4] Prykhod’ko O et al. Precocious gut maturation and immune cell expansion by single dose feeding the lectin phytohaemagglutinin to suckling rats. British Journal of Nutrition 2009 Mar;101(5):735–42, http://pmid.us/18644165.

[5] Pusztai A et al. Inhibition of starch digestion by alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces the efficiency of utilization of dietary proteins and lipids and retards the growth of rats. Journal of Nutrition 1995 Jun;125(6):1554–62, http://pmid.us/7782910.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Pusztai A et al. Novel dietary strategy for overcoming the antinutritional effects of soyabean whey of high agglutinin content. Br Journal of Nutrition 1997 Jun;77(6):933–45, http://pmid.us/9227190.

[8] Purhonen AK et al. Duodenal phytohaemagglutinin (red kidney bean lectin) stimulates gallbladder contraction in humans. Acta Physiologica 2008 Jul;193(3):241–7, http://pmid.us/18248661.

[9] Sitosterolemia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitosterolemia. Guyenet S. Margarine and phytosterolemia, March 9, 2009, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/03/margarine-and-phytosterolemia.html.

[10] Freed DL. Do dietary lectins cause disease? BMJ 1999 Apr 17;318(7190):1023–4, http://pmid.us/10205084.

[11] Brown DL. Canavanine-induced longevity in mice may require diets with greater than 15.7% protein. Nutrition & Metabolism 2005 Feb 25;2(1):7, http://pmid.us/15733319/. Hat tip to J. Stanton: Anti-nutritionism, L-canavanine, and the limitations of N=1 Self-experimentation, www.gnolls.org/2982/anti-nutritionism-l-canavanine-and-the-limitations-of-n1-self-experimentation/.

[12] Alcocer-Varela J et al. Effects of L-canavanine on T cells may explain the induction of systemic lupus erythematosus by alfalfa. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1985 Jan;28(1):52–7, http://pmid.us/3155617. Montanaro A, Bardana EJ Jr. Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 1991 May;17(2):323–32, http://pmid.us/1862241. Akaogi J et al. Role of non-protein amino acid L-canavanine in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Reviews 2006 Jul;5(6):429–35, http://pmid.us/16890899. Hat tip to J. Stanton: Anti-nutritionism, L-canavanine, and the limitations of N=1 Self-experimentation, www.gnolls.org/2982/anti-nutritionism-l-canavanine-and-the-limitations-of-n1-self-experimentation/.

[13] Haeney MR et al. Soya protein antibodies in man: their occurrence and possible relevance in coeliac disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1982 Mar;35(3):319–22, http://pmid.us/7040491.

Chapter 21: Liquid Devils: Vegetable Seed Oils

[1] Lands WE. Dietary fat and health: the evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 2005 Dec;1055:179–92, http://pmid.us/16387724.

[2] The fatty acid content of vegetable oils can be found at http://nutritiondata.com.

[3] Kritchevsky D et al. Lectin may contribute to the atherogenicity of peanut oil. Lipids 1998 Aug;33(8):821–3, http://pmid.us/9727614.

[4] Kritchevsky D et al. Influence of native and randomized peanut oil on lipid metabolism and aortic sudanophilia in the vervet monkey. Atherosclerosis 1982 Mar;42(1):53–8, http://pmid.us/7082418.

[5] Rose GA et al. Corn oil in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal 1965 Jun 12;1(5449):1531–3, http://pmid.us/14288105.

[6] Waitzberg DL et al. New parenteral lipid emulsions for clinical use. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2006 Jul–Aug;30(4):351–67, http://pmid.us/16804134.

[7] Johnson CY. Old-fashioned lifeline. The Boston Globe, January 9, 2009, www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/01/09/old_fashioned_lifeline/.

[8] Puder M et al. Parenteral fish oil improves outcomes in patients with parenteral nutrition–associated liver injury. Annals of Surgery 2009 Sep;250(3):395–402, http://pmid.us/19661785. Gura KM et al. Reversal of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in two infants with short bowel syndrome using parenteral fish oil: implications for future management. Pediatrics 2006 Jul;118(1):e197–201, http://pmid.us/16818533.

[9] Fishing for the right solution, http://childrenshospital.org/dream/dream_fall06/fishing_for_the_right_solution.html.

[10] Cury-Boaventura MF et al. Effect of olive oil–based emulsion on human lymphocyte and neutrophil death. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):81–7, http://pmid.us/18165452.

Chapter 22: The Sweet Toxin: Fructose

[1] Lustig RH, Sugar: the bitter truth, www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM/, at 21:00.

[2] Tappy L, Lê KA. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Reviews 2010 Jan;90(1):23–46, http://pmid.us/20086073. Hat tip to David Despain: Fate of fructose: interview with Dr John Sievenpiper, May 26, 2012, http://evolvinghealthscience.blogspot.com/2012/05/fate-of-fructose-interview-with-dr-john.html.

[3] Stanhope KL, Havel PJ. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Dec;88(6):1733S–1737S, http://pmid.us/19064538. Stanhope KL et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 2009 May;119(5):1322–34, http://pmid.us/19381015.

[4] Ackerman Z et al. Fructose-induced fatty liver disease: hepatic effects of blood pressure and plasma triglyceride reduction. Hypertension 2005 May;45(5):1012–8, http://pmid.us/15824194.

[5] Underwood M. Sugary drinks, fruit, and increased risk of gout. BMJ 2008 Feb 9;336(7639):285–286, http://pmid.us/18258933.

[6] Seegmiller JE et al. Fructose-induced aberration of metabolism in familial gout identified by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990 Nov;87(21):8326–30, http://pmid.us/2236043.

[7] Johnson RJ et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Oct;86(4):899–906, http://pmid.us/17921363.

[8] Perez-Poso et al. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. International Journal of Obesity 2010 Mar;34(3):454–61, http://pmid.us/20029377. Nakagawa T et al. A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology 2006 Mar;290(3):F625–31, http://pmid.us/16234313.

[9] Johnson RJ et al. Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes? Endocrine Reviews 2009 Feb;30(1):96–116, http://pmid.us/19151107.

[10] Twentyfold: Gross, LS et al: Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79:774–9, http://pmid.us/15113714. Sixfold: Bray GA. How bad is fructose? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Oct;86(4):895–6, http://pmid.us/17921361.

[11] Bergheim I et al. Antibiotics protect against fructose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice: role of endotoxin. Journal of Hepatology 2008 Jun;48(6):983–92, http://pmid.us/18395289.

[12] Mehta NN et al. Experimental endotoxemia induces adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes 2010 Jan;59(1):172–81, http://pmid.us/19794059. Harris K et al. Is the gut microbiota a new factor contributing to obesity and its metabolic disorders? Journal of Obesity 2012;2012:879151, http://pmid.us/22315672. Hat tip to Ray: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/comment-page-1/#comment–68004. Chang S, Li L. Metabolic endotoxemia: a novel concept in chronic disease pathology. Journal of Medical Sciences 2011;31(5):191–209, http://jms.ndmctsgh.edu.tw/fdarticlee%5C3105191.pdf.

[13] Cani PD et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 2008 Jun;57(6):1470–81, http://pmid.us/18305141.

[14] Lassenius MI et al. Bacterial endotoxin activity in human serum is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and chronic inflammation. Diabetes Care 2011 Aug;34(8):1809–15, http://pmid.us/21636801.

[15] Frazier TH et al. Gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, obesity-induced inflammation, and liver injury. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2011 Sep;35(5 suppl):14S–20S, http://pmid.us/21807932. Cani PD et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 2008 Jun;57(6):1470–81, http://pmid.us/18305141.

[16] Naito E et al. Beneficial effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2011 Mar;110(3):650–7, http://pmid.us/21281408.

[17] Frazier TH et al. Gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, obesity-induced inflammation, and liver injury. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2011 Sep;35(5)(suppl):14S–20S, http://pmid.us/21807932.

[18] Chris Masterjohn, This just in: the infamous lard-based high-fat rodent diet is twice as high in PUFA as previously reported, November 19, 2011, http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/2011/11/this-just-in-infamous-lard-based-high.html.

[19] Cani PD et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 2008 Jun;57(6):1470–81, http://pmid.us/18305141.

[20] Amador P et al. Intestinal D-galactose transport in an endotoxemia model in the rabbit. Journal of Membrane Biology 2007 Feb;215(2–3):125–33, http://pmid.us/17563824.

[21] Wallström P et al. Dietary fiber and saturated fat intake associations with cardiovascular disease differ by sex in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort: a prospective study. PLoS One 2012;7(2):e31637, http://pmid.us/22384046.

[22] Ludwig DS et al. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. The Lancet 2001 Feb 17;357(9255):505–8, http://pmid.us/11229668.

[23] James J et al. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004 May 22;328(7450):1237, http://pmid.us/15107313.

[24] Vartanian LR, et al. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Public Health 2007 Apr;97(4):667–75, http://pmid.us/17329656.

[25] Shapiro A et al. Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2008 Nov;295(5):R1370–5, http://pmid.us/18703413.

[26] Takagi Y. Significance of fructose-induced protein oxidation and formation of advanced glycation end product. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications 1995 Apr–Jun; 9(2): 87–91, http://pmid.us/7599353.

[27] Ross AP et al. A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 2009 Oct;92(3):410–16, http://pmid.us/19500683.

[28] Preuss HG. Effects of diets containing different proportions of macronutrients on longevity of normotensive Wistar rats. Geriatric Nephrology and Urology 1997;7(2):81–6, http://pmid.us/9422703.

[29] Kawasaki T et al. Postprandial plasma fructose level is associated with retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2004 May;53(5):583–8, http://pmid.us/15131761.

Chapter 23: Toxins Introduced by the Industrial Food System

[1] Low potassium levels from use of Gossypol linked to paralysis. International Family Planning Perspectives 1981;7(1):24–25, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2947696. Coutinho FM. Gossypol: a contraceptive for men. Contraception 2002 Apr;65(4):259–63, http://pmid.us/12020773.

[2] Ramsey D, Graham T. How vegetable oils replaced animal fats in the American diet. The Atlantic, April 26, 2012, www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/04/how-vegetable-oils-replaced-animal-fats-in-the-american-diet/256155/.

[3] Cottonseed oil. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottonseed_oil.

[4] Fallon S, Enig M. The great con-ola, July 28, 2002, www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/the-great-con-ola.

[5] Ratnayake WM et al. Fatty acids in some common food items in Canada. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1993 Dec;12(6):651–60, http://pmid.us/8294720.

[6] O’Keefe S et al. Levels of trans geometrical isomers of essential fatty acids in some unhydrogenated US vegetable oils. Journal of Food Lipids Sept 1994;1(3):165–176, www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119973548/abstract.

[7] Sally Fallon Morell, Trans Fats in the Food supply, January 31, 2012, www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/trans-fats-in-the-food-supply.

[8] Booth SL et al. Effects of a hydrogenated form of vitamin K on bone formation and resorption. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001 Dec;74(6):783–90, http://pmid.us/11722960. Troy LM et al. Dihydrophylloquinone intake is associated with low bone mineral density in men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Aug;86(2):504–8, http://pmid.us/17684225.

[9] Sally Fallon, Dirty Secrets of the Food Processing Industry, www.westonaprice.org/modern-foods/dirty-secrets-of-the-food-processing-industry.

[10] Ray Medina, personal communication. Matucci A et al. Temperature-dependent decay of wheat germ agglutinin activity and its implications for food processing and analysis. Food Control 2004 Jul;15(5):391–395, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095671350300104X. Nachbar MS, Oppenheim JD. Lectins in the United States diet: a survey of lectins in commonly consumed foods and a review of the literature. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1980 Nov;33(11):2338–45, http://pmid.us/7001881.

[11] Green E. Is milk still milk? Los Angeles Times, August 2, 2000, http://articles.latimes.com/2000/aug/02/food/fo-62752. Fallon S. Dirty secrets of the food processing industry, December 26, 2005, www.westonaprice.org/modern-foods/dirty-secrets-of-the-food-processing-industry.

[12] Briffa J. It’s not just the salt that makes many meat-substitute foods a thoroughly unhealthy option, May 19, 2008, www.drbriffa.com/blog/2008/05/19/its-not-just-the-salt-that-makes-many-meat-substitute-foods-a-thoroughly-unhealthy-option/.

[13] Kristof N. Arsenic in our chicken. The New York Times, April 4, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/opinion/kristof-arsenic-in-our-chicken.html.

[14] Nachman KE et al. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal. Science of the Total Environment 2012 Feb 15;417–418:183–8, http://pmid.us/2224435.

[15] Love DC et al. Feather meal: a previously unrecognized route for reentry into the food supply of multiple pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Environmental Science & Technology 2012 Apr 3;46(7):3795–802, http://pmid.us/2243597.

[16] Micha R et al. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83, http://pmid.us/20479151. Eating processed meats, but not unprocessed red meats, may raise risk of heart disease and diabetes, study finds. ScienceDaily, June 6, 2010, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100517161130.htm.

[17] Ward MH. Too much of a good thing? Nitrate from nitrogen fertilizers and cancer. Reviews on Environmental Health 2009 Oct–Dec;24(4):357–63, http://pmid.us/20384045.

[18] Guyenet S. Nitrate: A protective factor in leafy greens, June 10, 2010, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2010/06/nitrate-protective-factor-in-leafy.html.

[19] Rieger R. Introduction to Fruit Crops. New York: Food Products Press, 2006. Cited in Cochran G, Harpending H. The 10,000 year explosion: how civilization accelerated human evolution. New York: Basic Books, 2009, 17.

[20] Árpád Pusztai, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rp%C3%A1d_Pusztai. Ewen SW, Pusztai A. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. The Lancet 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1353–4, http://pmid.us/10533866.

Chapter 24: Four Steps to a Low-Toxicity Diet

[1] Seo YJ et al. (1990) The effect of lectin from taro tuber (Colocasia antiquorum) given by force-feeding on the growth of mice. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 1990 Jun;36(3):277–85, http://pmid.us/2292730.

[2] Juliano BO. Rice in Human Nutrition. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, www.fao.org/docrep/t0567e/T0567E00.htm.

[3] Mehr SS et al. Rice: a common and severe cause of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2009 Mar;94(3):220–3, http://pmid.us/18957470.

[4] Jägerstad M, Skog K. Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutation Research 2005 Jul 1;574(1–2):156–72, http://pmid.us/15914214. Hat tip to Mark Sisson: Safe cooking temperatures, www.marksdailyapple.com/safe-cooking-temperatures/.

[5] Sugimura T et al. Heterocyclic amines: mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Science 2004 Apr;95(4):290–9, http://pmid.us/15072585.

[6] Dobrowolski P et al. Potato fiber protects the small intestinal wall against the toxic influence of acrylamide. Nutrition 2012 Apr;28(4):428–35, http://pmid.us/22414587.

[7] Birlouez-Aragon I et al. A diet based on high-heat-treated foods promotes risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 May;91(5):1220–6, http://pmid.us/20335546.

[8] Stevens JF, Maier CS. Acrolein: sources, metabolism, and biomolecular interactions relevant to human health and disease. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2008 Jan;52(1):7–25, http://pmid.us/18203133.

[9] Bridges FS. Relationship between dietary beef, fat, and pork and alcoholic cirrhosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2009 Sep;6(9):2417–25, http://pmid.us/19826553. Jaminet P. Pork: did Leviticus 11:7 have it right?, February 8, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/02/pork-did-leviticus-117-have-it-right/.

[10] Nanji AA, French SW. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Relationship to wine and pork consumption. Cancer 1985 Dec 1;56(11):2711–2, http://pmid.us/2996744. Nanji AA, Narod S. Multiple sclerosis, latitude and dietary fat: is pork the missing link? Medical Hypotheses 1986 Jul;20(3):279–82, http://pmid.us/3638477.

[11] Purcell RH, Emerson SU. Hidden danger: the raw facts about hepatitis E virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010 Sep 15;202(6):819–21, http://pmid.us/20695795. Emerson SU et al. Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005 Sep 1;192(5):930–3, http://pmid.us/16088844. Jaminet P. the trouble with pork, part 3: pathogens, February 22, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/02/the-trouble-with-pork-part–3-pathogens/.

[12] Colson P et al. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010 Sep 15;202(6):825–34, http://pmid.us/20695796.

[13] Piperno DR et al. Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature 2004 Aug 5;430(7000):670–3, http://pmid.us/15295598.

[14] Mercader J. Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age. Science 2009 Dec 18; 326:1680–1683, http://pmid.us/20019285.

[15] Gordon Hillman found archaeological residues from 157 plant species at the village of the Paleolithic hunter-gatherers at Abu Hureyra, Syria, and believed that at least another hundred species must have been eaten that left no residues. Source: Hillman, GC. The plant food economy of Abu Huraya 1 and 2. In Village on the Euphrates, ed. Moore AMT, Hillman GC, Legge AJ. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2000, 327–99.

[16] Bairoch P. Economics and world history: myths and paradoxes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, 93, http://books.google.com/books?id=LaF_cCknJScC.

[17] 4,000-year-old “kitchen” unearthed in Indiana, January 20, 2006, www.stonepages.com/news/archives/001708.html.

Chapter 25: A Traditional Pacific Islander Diet

[1] USDA. Nutrient content of the U.S. food supply 2005, www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/Foodsupply/Foodsupply2005Report.pdf.

[2] Franklyn D. Take a lesson from the people of Okinawa. Health, September 1996, 57–63. Cited in Fallon S, Enig M, Adventures in macro-nutrient land, April 1, 2003, www.westonaprice.org/basics/adventures-in-macro-nutrient-land. Sho H. History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;10(2):159–64, http://pmid.us/11710358.

[3] The Okinawa Centenarian Study, www.okicent.org.

[4] Shibata H et al. Nutrition for the Japanese elderly. Nutrition and Health 1992;8(2–3):165–75, http://pmid.us/1407826.

[5] Hokama T, Binns C. Declining longevity advantage and low birthweight in Okinawa. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 2008 Oct;20 suppl:95–101, http://pmid.us/19533867.

[6] Lindeberg S et al. Lipoprotein composition and serum cholesterol ester fatty acids in nonwesternized Melanesians. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):153–8, http://pmid.us/8835402. Lindeberg S et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Melanesian population apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease: the Kitava study. Journal of Internal Medicine 1994 Sep;236(3):331–40, http://pmid.us/8077891.

[7] Lindeberg S, Lundh B. Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. Journal of Internal Medicine 1993 Mar;233(3):269–75, http://pmid.us/8450295. Lindeberg S. The Kitava Study, www.staffanlindeberg.com/TheKitavaStudy.html.

[8] Hawaiian Annual (1930), cited in Kaniakapupu, www.pacificworlds.com/nuuanu/native/native5.cfm.

[9] Houghton P. People of the great ocean: aspects of human biology of the early Pacific. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1996. World Health Organization. Diet, food supply and obesity in the Pacific. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, World Health Organization, 2003. Cited in Cassels S. Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Global Health 2006 Jul 11;2:10, http://pmid.us/16834782/.

Chapter 26: Food Toxins Matter

[1] Jönsson T et al. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2009 Jul 16;8:35, http://pmid.us/19604407. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Paleolithic diet clinical trials Part IV, September 12, 2009, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/09/paleolithic-diet-clinical-trials-part.html.

[2] O’Rahilly S. Human genetics illuminates the paths to metabolic disease. Nature 2009 Nov 19;462(7271):307–14, http://pmid.us/19924209.

[3] Frassetto LA et al. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Aug;63(8):947–55, http://pmid.us/19209185.

[4] Lindeberg S et al. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia 2007 Sep;50(9):1795–807, http://pmid.us/17583796. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Paleolithic diet clinical trials, October 4, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/10/paleolithic-diet-clinical-trials.html, and Paleolithic diet clinical trials Part II, October 6, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/10/paleolithic-diet-clinical-trials-part.html.

[5] Jönsson T et al. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs. Nutrition & Metabolism 2006 Nov 2;3:39, http://pmid.us/17081292.

[6] Lindeberg S et al. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 Oct;66(4):845–52, http://pmid.us/9322559.

[7] Cassels S. Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Global Health 2006 Jul 11;2:10, http://pmid.us/16834782.

[8] Hezel FX. Health in Micronesia over the years. Micronesian Counselor 2004 Nov;53:1–15, www.micsem.org/pubs/counselor/frames/healthmicfr.htm. Cassels S. Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Global Health 2006 Jul 11;2:10, http://pmid.us/16834782.

[9] Galanis DJ et al. Dietary intake of modernizing Samoans: implications for risk of cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999 Feb;99(2):184–90, http://pmid.us/9972185.

[10] Hodge AM et al. Modernity and obesity in coastal and Highland Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1995 Mar;19(3):154–61, http://pmid.us/7780490.

[11] Ulijaszek SJ. Trends in body size, diet and food availability in the Cook Islands in the second half of the 20th century. Economics & Human Biology 2003 Jan;1(1):123–37, http://pmid.us/15463968.

[12] Ravussin E et al. Effects of a traditional lifestyle on obesity in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1994 Sep;17(9):1067–74, http://pmid.us/7988310. Schulz LO et al. Effects of traditional and western environments on prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the U.S. Diabetes Care 2006 Aug;29(8):1866–71, http://pmid.us/16873794. Caballero B. Introduction. Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors. Journal of Nutrition 2001 Mar;131(3):866S–870S, http://pmid.us/11238776.

[13] Trowell HC, Burkitt DP (eds.). Western diseases: their emergence and prevention. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981, http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qEfFafw7YDEC.

[14] Burkitt DP. Some diseases characteristic of modern Western civilization. British Medical Journal 1973 Feb 3;1(5848):274–8, http://pmid.us/4568142.

Chapter 27: Why Most People Are Malnourished

[1] Cordain L et al. Physical activity, energy expenditure, and fitness: an evolutionary perspective. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1998 Jul;19(5):328–35, http://pmid.us/9721056. Pontzer H et al. Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40503. http://pmid.us/22848382.

[2] Thomas D. The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940–2002)—a review of the 6th edition of McCance and Widdowson. Nutrition and Health 2007;19(1–2):21–55, http://pmid.us/18309763. Hat tip to Robert Andrew Brown: http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2010/04/copper-and-cardiovascular-disease.html?showComment=1270632032368#c5920586953484248104.

[3] Fan MS et al. Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2008;22(4):315–24, http://pmid.us/19013359. Hat tip to Adel Moussa.

[4] Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006 Nov 21;103(47):17589–94, http://pmid.us/17101959.

[5] Stocker CJ et al. Fetal origins of insulin resistance and obesity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2005 May;64(2):143–51, http://pmid.us/15960859.

[6] Maternal exposure to the Dutch famine before conception and during pregnancy: quality of life and depressive symptoms in adult offspring. Epidemiology 2009 Nov;20(6):909–15, http://pmid.us/19752733.

[7] Song S et al. Famine, death, and madness: schizophrenia in early adulthood after prenatal exposure to the Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine. Social Science & Medicine 2009 Apr;68(7):1315–21, http://pmid.us/19232455.

[8] Albacar G et al. An association between plasma ferritin concentrations measured 48 h after delivery and postpartum depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 2011 Jun;131(1–3):136–42, http://pmid.us/21130499.

[9] Price WA. Nutrition and physical degeneration: a comparison of primitive and modern diets and their effects. New York: P. B. Hoeber, 1939.

[10] Ibid. Morell SF, Weston A. Price, DDS, January 1, 2000, www.westonaprice.org/nutrition-greats/weston-price.

[11] Francis M. Pottenger, Jr. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_M._Pottenger,_Jr.

[12] Hickman MA et al. Effect of processing on fate of dietary [14C]taurine in cats. Journal of Nutrition 1990 Sep;120(9):995–1000, http://pmid.us/2144588. Kim SW et al. Dietary antibiotics decrease taurine loss in cats fed a canned heat-processed diet. Journal of Nutrition 1996 Feb;126(2):509–15, http://pmid.us/8632225. Kim SW et al. Maillard reaction products in purified diets induce taurine depletion in cats which is reversed by antibiotics. Journal of Nutrition 1996 Jan;126(1):195–201, http://pmid.us/8558301. Hat tip to Jean-Louis Tu: Is cooked food poison?, 1999, www.beyondveg.com/tu-j-l/raw-cooked/raw-cooked-1a.shtml.

[13] Sturman JA et al. Feline maternal taurine deficiency: effect on mother and offspring. Journal of Nutrition 1986 Apr;116(4):655–67, http://pmid.us/3754276.

[14] Massiera F et al. A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations. The Journal of Lipid Research 2010 Aug;51(8):2352–61, http://pmid.us/20410018. Hat tip to Jamie Scott: The adipogenic effect of omega-6 polyunsaturated fats, January 22, 2012, http://thatpaleoguy.com/2012/01/22/the-adipogenic-effect-of-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fats/.

[15] Gluckman PD, Hanson MA. Developmental and epigenetic pathways to obesity: an evolutionary-developmental perspective. International Journal of Obesity 2008 Dec;32(suppl 7):S62–71, http://pmid.us/19136993.

[16] Flynn effect, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect.

[17] Colom R, Lluis-Font JM, Andrés-Pueyo A. (2005) The generational intelligence gains are caused by decreasing variance in the lower half of the distribution: Supporting evidence for the nutrition hypothesis. Intelligence 33:83–91.

[18] Kramer MS et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 2008 May;65(5):578–84, http://pmid.us/18458209. Lucas A et al. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. The Lancet 1992 Feb 1;339(8788):261–4, http://pmid.us/1346280.

[19] Bock RD, Sykes RC. Evidence for continuing secular increase in height within families in the United States. Am J Hum Biol 1989;1(2):143–8, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajhb.1310010203/abstract.

[20] McNeil Jr. DG, In raising the world’s I.Q., the secret’s in the salt. The New York Times, December 16, 2006, www.nytimes.com/2006/12/16/health/16iodine.html.

[21] Poumes-Ballihaut C. (2002) Effect of dietary DHA on membrane lipids composition of the brain and retina and on two neurophysiologic functions in the rat. PhD thesis, L’École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes, Rennes, France. Cited in Cunnane SC et al. Why is carbon from some polyunsaturates extensively recycled into lipid synthesis? Lipids 2003 Apr;38(4):477–84, http://pmid.us/12848297.

[22] Garrett J, Ruel MT. The coexistence of child undernutrition and maternal overweight: prevalence, hypotheses, and programme and policy implications. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2005 Jul;1(3):185–96, http://pmid.us/16881899.

Chapter 28: Multivitamins: Good or Bad?

[1] Neuhouser ML et al. Multivitamin use and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease in the Women’s Health Initiative cohorts. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009 Feb 9;169(3):294–304, http://pmid.us/19204221. Hat tip to Stuart Buck: Don’t take your vitamins, February 10, 2009, http://stuartbuck.blogspot.com/2009/02/dont-take-your-vitamins.html.

[2] El-Kadiki A, Sutton AJ. Role of multivitamins and mineral supplements in preventing infections in elderly people: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2005 Apr 16;330(7496):871, http://pmid.us/15805125.

[3] Mursu J et al. Dietary supplements and mortality rate in older women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011 Oct 10;171(18):1625–33, http://pmid.us/21987192.

Chapter 29: Vitamins A, D, and K2

[1] Bjelakovic G et al. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet 2004 Oct 2–8;364(9441):1219–28, http://pmid.us/15464182.

[2] Feskanich D et al. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002 Jan 2;287(1):47–54, http://pmid.us/11754708.

[3] Lou YR et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) is an agonistic vitamin D receptor ligand. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2010 Feb 15;118(3):162–70, http://pmid.us/19944755.

[4] Heaney RP et al. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Jan;77(1):204–10, http://pmid.us/12499343.

[5] Vitamin D physiology, http://vitamindcouncil.org/vitaminDPhysiology.shtml.

[6] Heaney RP. Vitamin D: criteria for safety and efficacy. Nutrition Reviews 2008 Oct;66(10 suppl 2):S178–81, http://pmid.us/18844846.

[7] Heaney RP et al. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Jun;87(6):1738–42, http://pmid.us/18541563.

[8] Hathcock JN et al. Risk assessment for vitamin D. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Jan;85(1):6–18, http://pmid.us/17209171.

[9] Heaney RP et al. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Jun;87(6):1738–42, http://pmid.us/18541563.

[10] Luxwolda MF et al. Traditionally living populations in East Africa have a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 115 nmol/l. British Journal of Nutrition 2012 Jan 23:1–5, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/22264449.

[11] Heaney RP. Vitamin D in health and disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2008 Sep;3(5):1535–41, http://pmid.us/18525006.

[12] Rajasree S et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease. European Journal of Epidemiology 2001;17(6):567–71, http://pmid.us/11949730.

[13] Better OS et al. Increased incidence of nephrolithiasis (N) in lifeguards (LG) in Israel. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1980;128:467–72, http://pmid.us/7424691.

[14] Lou YR et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) is an agonistic vitamin D receptor ligand. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2010 Feb 15;118(3):162–70, http://pmid.us/19944755.

[15] Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults. The American Journal of Medicine 2004 May 1;116(9):634–9. http://pmid.us/15093761. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: “Are Some People Pushing their Vitamin D Levels Too High?,” May 31, 2010, www.westonaprice.org/blogs/2010/05/31/are-some-people-pushing-their-vitamin-d-levels-too-high/.

[16] Heaney RP et al. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Jun;87(6):1738–42, http://pmid.us/18541563.

[17] Mansbach JM et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics 2009 Nov;124(5):1404–10, http://pmid.us/19951983.

[18] Ginde AA et al. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009 Mar 23;169(6):626–32, http://pmid.us/19307527.

[19] National Cancer Institute. Cancer mortality maps and graphs, www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus/, based on Devesa SS et al. Atlas of cancer mortality in the United States, 1950–94. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999 [NIH Publ No. (NIH) 99-4564].

[20] Yin L et al. Meta-analysis: Serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer 2010 Aug;46(12):2196-205, http://pmid.us/20456946.

[21] Pilz S et al. Low vitamin D levels predict stroke in patients referred to coronary angiography. Stroke 2008 Sep;39(9):2611–3, http://pmid.us/18635847.

[22] Wong A. Incident solar radiation and coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe. European Journal of Epidemiology 2008;23(9):609–14, http://pmid.us/18704704.

[23] Dobnig H et al. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008 Jun 23;168(12):1340–9, http://pmid.us/18574092.

[24] Pilz S et al. Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. Clinical Endocrinology 2009 Nov;71(5):666–72, http://pmid.us/19226272.

[25] Thomas GN et al. Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. Diabetes Care 2012 May;35(5):1158–64, http://pmid.us/22399697.

[26] Liu E et al. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Jun;91(6):1627–33, http://pmid.us/20392893.

[27] Talat N et al. Vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis progression. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010 May;16(5):853–5, http://pmid.us/20409383.

[28] Urashima M et al. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 May;91(5):1255–60, http://pmid.us/20219962.

[29] Liu PT et al. Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin. The Journal of Immunology 2007 Aug 15;179(4):2060–3, http://pmid.us/17675463. White JH. Vitamin D signaling, infectious diseases, and regulation of innate immunity. Infection and Immunity 2008 Sep;76(9):3837–43, http://pmid.us/18505808.

[30] Oudshoorn C et al. Higher serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with better cognitive test performance in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2008;25(6):539–43, http://pmid.us/18503256. Llewellyn DJ et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 2009 Sep;22(3):188–95, http://pmid.us/19073839.

[31] The Vitamin D Council Newsletter, March 9, 2009, www.vitamindcouncil.org/index.aspx?o=4830.

[32] Shima K et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and Alzheimer’s disease: a connection to remember? Medical Microbiology and Immunology 2010 Nov;199(4):283-9, http://pmid.us/20445987.

[33] Jaminet P. Is Alzheimer’s caused by a bacterial infection of the brain?, June 28, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=126.

[34] Milo R, Kahana E. Multiple sclerosis: geoepidemiology, genetics and the environment. Autoimmunity Reviews 2010 Mar;9(5):A387–94, http://pmid.us/19932200.

[35] Burton JM et al. A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2010 Jun 8;74(23):1852-9, http://pmid.us/20427749.

[36] Grant WB. Latitude and multiple sclerosis prevalence: vitamin D reduces risk of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Multiple Sclerosis 2010 Mar;16(3):373; author reply 374–5, http://pmid.us/20028708.

[37] Nimptsch K et al. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin as biomarker of vitamin K intake and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study in the Heidelberg cohort of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2009 Jan;18(1):49–56, http://pmid.us/19124480.

[38] Shea MK et al. Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Apr;63(4):458–64, http://pmid.us/18030310.

[39] O’Connor E et al. Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls. British Journal of Nutrition 2007 Apr;97(4):661–6, http://pmid.us/17349078.

[40] van Summeren MJ et al. Vitamin K status is associated with childhood bone mineral content. British Journal of Nutrition 2008 Oct;100(4):852–8, http://pmid.us/18279558.

[41] van Summeren MJ et al. Pronounced elevation of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in healthy children. Pediatric Research 2007 Mar;61(3):366–70, http://pmid.us/17314699.

[42] Israels LG et al. The riddle of vitamin K1 deficit in the newborn. Seminars in Perinatology 1997 Feb;21(1):90–6, http://pmid.us/9190038.

[43] Cockayne S et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 Jun 26;166(12):1256–61, http://pmid.us/16801507.

[44] Shaw LJ et al. Coronary artery calcium as a measure of biologic age. Atherosclerosis 2006 Sep;188(1):112–9, http://pmid.us/16289071.

[45] Beulens JW et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis 2009 Apr;203(2):489–93, http://pmid.us/18722618.

[46] Gast GC et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 2009 Sep;19(7):504–10, http://pmid.us/19179058.

[47] Geleijnse JM et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. Journal of Nutrition 2004 Nov;134(11):3100–5, http://pmid.us/15514282.

[48] Stephan Guyenet, Vitamin K-2, menatetranone (MK-4), June 17, 2008, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/06/vitamin-k2-menatetrenone-mk-4.html.

[49] Lamson DW, Plaza SM. The anticancer effects of vitamin K. Alternative Medicine Review 2003 Aug;8(3):303–18, http://pmid.us/12946240. Full text: www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/3/303.pdf.

[50] Nimptsch K et al. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin as biomarker of vitamin K intake and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study in the Heidelberg cohort of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2009 Jan;18(1):49–56, http://pmid.us/19124480.

[51] Cheung AM et al. Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ECKO trial): a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Medicine 2008 Oct 14;5(10):e196, http://pmid.us/18922041.

[52] Miyazawa K et al. Vitamin K2 therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and post-MDS acute myeloid leukemia: information through a questionnaire survey of multi-center pilot studies in Japan. Leukemia 2000 Jun;14(6):1156–7, http://pmid.us/10865985.

[53] Azuma K et al. Vitamin K2 suppresses proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating steroid and xenobiotic receptor. Endocrine Journal 2009;56(7):843–9, http://pmid.us/19550077.

[54] Hepatocellular carcinoma, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatocellular_carcinoma.

[55] Yoshiji H et al. Combination of vitamin K2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates cumulative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Hepatology 2009 Aug;51(2):315–21, http://pmid.us/19501932.

[56] Murata K et al. Hypoxia-induced des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin production in hepatocellular carcinoma. International Journal of Oncology 2010 Jan;36(1):161–70, http://pmid.us/19956845. Ide Y et al. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression by menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analogue. Oncology Reports 2009 Sep;22(3):599–604, http://pmid.us/19639210.

[57] Takahashi S et al. PIVKA-II is the best prognostic predictor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation therapy. Oncology 2008;75 suppl 1:91–8, http://pmid.us/19092277.

[58] Schurgers LJ et al. Regression of warfarin-induced medial elastocalcinosis by high intake of vitamin K in rats. Blood 2007 Apr 1;109(7):2823–31, http://pmid.us/17138823.

[59] Rennenberg RJ et al. Chronic coumarin treatment is associated with increased extra-coronary arterial calcification in humans. Blood 2010 Jun 17;115(24):5121–3, http://pmid.us/20354170.

[60] Tsaioun KI. Vitamin K–dependent proteins in the developing and aging nervous system. Nutrition Reviews 1999 Aug;57(8):231–40, http://pmid.us/10518409.

[61] Denisova NA, Booth SL. Vitamin K and sphingolipid metabolism: evidence to date. Nutrition Reviews 2005 Apr;63(4):111–21, http://pmid.us/15869125.

[62] Crivello NA et al. Age- and brain region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2010 Nov;21(11):1083-8, http://pmid.us/20092997.

[63] Li J et al. Novel role of vitamin K in preventing oxidative injury to developing oligodendrocytes and neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003 Jul 2;23(13):5816–26, http://pmid.us/12843286.

[64] Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Medical Hypotheses 2007;68(5):1026–34, http://pmid.us/17145139.

[65] Fu X et al. 9-Cis retinoic acid reduces 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-induced renal calcification by altering vitamin K–dependent gamma-carboxylation of matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein in A/J male mice. Journal of Nutrition 2008 Dec;138(12):2337–41, http://pmid.us/19022954.

[66] Dahlbäck B, Villoutreix BO. The anticoagulant protein C pathway. FEBS Letters 2005 Jun 13;579(15):3310–6, http://pmid.us/15943976.

[67] Matsuzaka T et al. Relationship between vitamin K dependent coagulation factors and anticoagulants (protein C and protein S) in neonatal vitamin K deficiency. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1993 Mar;68(3 Spec No):297–302, http://pmid.us/8466266.

[68] Spiesman IG. Massive doses of vitamins A and D in the prevention of the common cold. Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery 1941(Oct);34(4):787–791, http://archotol.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?volume=34&page=787. Cited in Masterjohn C, Is vitamin D safe? still depends on vitamins A and K! Testimonials and a human study, December 16, 2010, www.westonaprice.org/blogs/2010/12/16/is-vitamin-d-safe-still-depends-on-vitamins-a-and-k-testimonials-and-a-human-study/.

[69] Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Medical Hypotheses 2007;68(5):1026–34, http://pmid.us/17145139.

[70] Fu X et al. 9-Cis retinoic acid reduces 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-induced renal calcification by altering vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein in A/J male mice. Journal of Nutrition 2008 Dec;138(12):2337–41, http://pmid.us/19022954. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=112375358783617.

Chapter 30: Selenium and Iodine

[1] Klebanoff SJ. Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2005 May;77(5):598–625, http://pmid.us/15689384. Severe impairment in early host defense against Candida albicans in mice deficient in myeloperoxidase. Infection and Immunity 1999 Apr;67(4):1828–36, http://pmid.us/10085024.

[2] Woeber KA, Ingbar SH. Metabolism of L-thyroxine by phagocytosing human leukocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1973 Aug;52(8):1796–803, http://pmid.us/4719661.

[3] Miller JK et al. Iodine concentration in nonthyroid tissues of cows. Journal of Dairy Science 1973 Oct;56(10):1344–6, http://pmid.us/4742118.

[4] Szent-Györgyi A. Bioenergetics. New York: Academic Press, 1957, 112.

[5] Köhrle J, Gärtner R. Selenium and thyroid. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2009 Dec;23(6):815–27, http://pmid.us/19942156.

[6] Derumeaux H et al. Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35- to 60-year-old French adults. European Journal of Endocrinology 2003 Mar;148(3):309–15, http://pmid.us/12611611.

[7] Roy M et al. supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. I. Effect on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 receptor expression. Biological Trace Element Research 1994;41(1–2):103–114, http://pmid.us/7946898. Kiremidjian-Schumacher L et al. supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. II. Effect on cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Biological Trace Element Research 1994;41(1–2):115–127, http://pmid.us/7946899. Kiremidjian-Schumacher L et al. Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer. Biological Trace Element Research 2000;73(2):97–111, http://pmid.us/11049203.

[8] Alehagen U et al. Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplementation: A 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. International Journal of Cardiology (May 22, 2012), http://pmid.us/22626835.

[9] Bjelakovic G et al. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet 2004 Oct 2–8;364(9441):1219–28, http://pmid.us/15464182.

[10] Combs GF Jr, Gray WP. Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1998 Sep;79(3):179–92, http://pmid.us/9776375.

[11] Yu SY et al. Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research 1997;56(1):117–124, http://pmid.us/9152515.

[12] Duffield-Lillico AJ et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU International 2003;91(7):608–612, http://pmid.us/12699469.

[13] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Selenium. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000, 284–324, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9810&page=284.

[14] Hansen JC et al. Selenium status in Greenland Inuit. Science of the Total Environment 2004 Sep 20;331(1–3):207–14, http://pmid.us/15325150.

[15] Schwartz TR, Kmiec EB. Reduction of gene repair by selenomethionine with the use of single-stranded oligonucleotides. BMC Molecular Biology 2007 Jan 26;8:7, http://pmid.us/17257432.

[16] Zeng H et al. Dietary selenomethionine increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa. Journal of Nutrition 2011 Aug;141(8):1464–8, http://pmid.us/21653573.

[17] Lemire M et al. No evidence of selenosis from a selenium-rich diet in the Brazilian Amazon. Environment International 2012 Apr;40:128–36, http://pmid.us/21856002. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/comment-page–2/#comment–68501.

[18] Ma Y et al. Embryonic developmental toxicity of selenite in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and prevention with folic acid. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012 Aug;50(8):2854-63, http://pmid.us/22583652.

[19] Hoffman I et al. Muscle and kidney selenium levels in calves and lambs raised in various parts of Canada: relationship to selenium concentrations in plants and possibly human intakes. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 1973(Mar); 53: 61–66, http://pubs.aic.ca/doi/pdf/10.4141/cjas73-008.

[20] Keck AS, Finley JW. Database values do not reflect selenium contents of grain, cereals, and other foods grown or purchased in the upper Midwest of the United States. Nutrition Research 26 (2006) 17–22, http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/7317/PDF.

[21] Cohn JR, Emmett EA. The excretion of trace metals in human sweat. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science 1978 Jul-Aug;8(4):270–5, http://pmid.us/686643.

[22] Triggiani V et al. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders—Drug Targets 2009 Sep;9(3):277–94, http://pmid.us/19594417.

[23] Venturi S et al. A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1993 Jan;2(1):17–23, http://pmid.us/8428171.

[24] Go?kowski F et al. Iodine prophylaxis—the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas. European Journal of Nutrition 2007 Aug;46(5):251–6, http://pmid.us/17497074.

[25] Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 milligrams/day in Japan. Thyroid 2008 Jun;18(6):667–8, http://pmid.us/18578621.

[26] Hetzel BS, Clugston GA. Iodine. In Modern nutrition in health and disease, 9th ed., ed. Shils M et al. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 253–264. Hat tip to Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center: Iodine, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/.

[27] Pennington JA. Intakes of minerals from diets and foods: is there a need for concern? Journal of Nutrition 1996 Sep;126(9)(suppl):2304S–2308S, http://pmid.us/8811790.

[28] Go?kowski F et al. Iodine prophylaxis–the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas. European Journal of Nutrition 2007 Aug;46(5):251–6, http://pmid.us/17497074.

[29] Bernecker C. Intermittent therapy with potassium iodide in chronic obstructive disease of the airways. A review of 10 years’ experience. Acta Allergologica 1969 Sep;24(3):216–25, http://pmid.us/5395878.

[30] Bernecker C. Potassium iodide in bronchial asthma. British Medical Journal 1969 Oct 25;4(5677):236, http://pmid.us/5349316.

[31] Teng W et al. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006 Jun 29;354(26):2783–93, http://pmid.us/16807415.

[32] Yoon SJ et al. The effect of iodine restriction on thyroid function in patients with hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Yonsei Med J. 2003 Apr 30;44(2):227-35. http://pmid.us/12728462. Mario Renato Iwakura, “Iodine and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Part 2,” http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/05/iodine-and-hashimotos-thyroiditis-part-2/, and ” Iodine and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Part I,” http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/05/iodine-and-hashimotos-thyroiditis-part-i/.

[33] Xu J et al. Supplemental selenium alleviates the toxic effects of excessive iodine on thyroid. Biological Trace Element Research 2010 Jun 2, http://pmid.us/20517655. Chen X et al. Effect of excessive iodine on immune function of lymphocytes and intervention with selenium. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2007 Aug;27(4):422–5, http://pmid.us/17828501. Hat tip to Mario Renato Iwakura: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/05/iodine-and-hashimotos-thyroiditis-part-i/.

[34] Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 milligrams/day in Japan. Thyroid 2008 Jun;18(6):667–8, http://pmid.us/18578621.

[35] Markou K et al. Iodine-induced hypothyroidism. Thyroid 2001 May;11(5):501–10, http://pmid.us/11396709.

[36] Fradkin JE, Wolff J. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis. Medicine 1983 Jan;62(1):1–20, http://pmid.us/6218369.

[37] Utiger RD. Iodine nutrition—more is better. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006 Jun 29;354(26):2819–21, http://pmid.us/16807421.

[38] Gribble GW. The natural production of organobromine compounds. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 2000 Mar;7(1):37–47, http://pmid.us/19153837. Zhang ZW et al. Urinary bromide levels probably dependent to intake of foods such as sea algae. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2001 May;40(4):579–84, http://pmid.us/11525503. Kawai T, Zhang ZW et al. Comparison of urinary bromide levels among people in East Asia, and the effects of dietary intakes of cereals and marine products. Toxicology Letters 2002 Aug 5;134(1–3):285–93, http://pmid.us/12191890. Hat tip to Mario Renato Iwakura: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/05/iodine-and-hashimotos-thyroiditis-part-2/.

[39] van Netten C et al. Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed. Science of the Total Environment 2000 Jun 8;255(1–3):169–75, http://pmid.us/10898404. Miyashita S, Kaise T. Biological effects and metabolism of arsenic compounds present in seafood products. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2010;51(3):71–91, http://pmid.us/20595788. Cleland B et al. Arsenic exposure within the Korean community (United States) based on dietary behavior and arsenic levels in hair, urine, air, and water. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009 Apr;117(4):632-8, http://pmid.us/19440504.

[40] Leblanc C et al. Iodine transfers in the coastal marine environment: the key role of brown algae and of their vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase. Biochimie 2006 Nov;88(11):1773–85. http://pmid.us/17007992. Hou X et al. Iodine-129 in human thyroids and seaweed in China. Science of the Total Environment 2000 Feb 10;246(2–3):285–91, http://pmid.us/10696729. Toh Y et al. Isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in seaweed measured by neutron activation analysis with gamma-gamma coincidence. Health Physics 2002 Jul;83(1):110–3, http://pmid.us/12075675.

[41] Asvold BO et al. Thyrotropin levels and risk of fatal coronary heart disease: the HUNT study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008 Apr 28;168(8):855–60, http://pmid.us/18443261.

[42] Negro R et al. Increased Pregnancy loss rate in thyroid antibody negative women with TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 in the first trimester of pregnancy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2010 Sep;95(9):E44-8, http://pmid.us/20534758.

[43] Kuppens SM et al. Maternal thyroid function during gestation is related to breech presentation at term. Clinical Endocrinology 2010 Jun;72(6):820–4, http://pmid.us/19832853.

[44] Nygaard B et al. Effect of combination therapy with thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine versus T4 monotherapy in patients with hypothyroidism, a double-blind, randomised cross-over study. European Journal of Endocrinology 2009 Dec;161(6):895–902, http://pmid.us/19666698.

Chapter 31: Potassium and Sodium

[1] Astrup J et al. Oxygen and glucose consumption related to Na+-K+ transport in canine brain. Stroke 1981 Nov–Dec;12(6):726–30, http://pmid.us/7303061. Hat tip to Emily Deans: Ketogenic diets and bipolar disorder, August 27, 2010, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2010/08/ketogenic-diets-and-bipolar-disorder-2.html.

[2] Yang Q et al. Sodium and potassium intake and mortality among US adults: prospective data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011 Jul 11;171(13):1183–91, http://pmid.us/21747015.1.

[3] Cook NR et al. Joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease: the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009 Jan 12;169(1):32–40, http://pmid.us/19139321.

[4] Morris RC Jr et al. Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006 Jun;25(3 suppl):262S–270S, http://pmid.us/16772638. Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: when salt reduction may be warranted, April 27, 2012, http://chriskresser.com/shaking-up-the-salt-myth-when-salt-reduction-may-be-warranted.

[5] Sebastian A et al. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. The New England Journal of Medicine 1994 Jun 23;330(25):1776–81, http://pmid.us/8190153. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Beyond Ötzi: European evolutionary history and its relevance to diet. part III, May 17, 2012, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2012/05/beyond-otzi-european-evolutionary_17.html.

[6] Cappuccio FP, MacGregor GA. Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of published trials. Journal of Hypertension 1991 May;9(5):465–73, http://pmid.us/1649867. Whelton PK et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1997 May 28;277(20):1624–32, http://pmid.us/9168293.

[7] Shidfar F et al. The effects of tomato consumption on serum glucose, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, homocysteine and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 2011 May;62(3):289–94. http://pmid.us/21138408. Hat tip to J. P. Fanton: Tomates and diabetes, December 15, 2010, www.healthyfellow.com/724/tomatoes-and-diabetes/.

[8] DeHaven J et al. Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet. The New England Journal of Medicine 1980 Feb 28;302(9):477–82, http://pmid.us/7351972.

[9] Phinney SD. Low-calorie protein versus mixed diet. The New England Journal of Medicine 1980 Jul 17;303(3):158, http://pmid.us/7383079. Phinney SD. Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutrition & Metabolism 2004 Aug 17;1(1):2, http://pmid.us/15507148. Hat tip to L. Amber Wilcox-O’Hearn.

[10] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Potassium. In Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, 186–268, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309091691.

Chapter 32: Calcium, Collagen, and Magnesium

[1] Reid IR et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on hip fractures. Osteoporosis International 2008 Aug;19(8):1119–23, http://pmid.us/18286218.

[2] Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U.S. adults. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2009 May;24(5):935–42, http://pmid.us/19113911.

[3] Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults. The American Journal of Medicine 2004 May 1;116(9):634–9, http://pmid.us/15093761.

[4] Cockayne S et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jun 26;166(12):1256-61. http://pmid.us/16801507.

[5] Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. Effect on the mineral density of calcaneous bone in postmenopausal women on hormonal therapy. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1990 May;35(5):503–7, http://pmid.us/2352244.

[6] Bolland MJ et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ 2010 Jul 29;341:c3691, http://pmid.us/20671013. Meier C, Kränzlin ME. Calcium supplementation, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Swiss Medical Weekly 2011 Aug 31;141:w13260, http://pmid.us/21882122. Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: when salt reduction may be warranted, April 27, 2012, http://chriskresser.com/shaking-up-the-salt-myth-when-salt-reduction-may-be-warranted.

[7] Bolland MJ et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ 2010 Jul 29;341:c3691, http://pmid.us/20671013.

[8] Bolland MJ et al. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis. BMJ 2011 Apr 19;342:d2040, http://pmid.us/21505219. Hat tip to Steven Hamley: Osteoporosis, April 9, 2012, http://thepaleopremise.blogspot.com/2012/04/osteoporosis.html.

[9] Payne ME et al. Calcium and vitamin D intakes may be positively associated with brain lesions in depressed and nondepressed elders. Nutrition Research 2008 May;28(5):285–92, http://pmid.us/19083421.

[10] Curhan GC et al. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997 Apr 1;126(7):497–504, http://pmid.us/9092314.

[11] Kierek K, Watnick PI. The Vibrio cholerae O139 O-antigen polysaccharide is essential for Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in sea water. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003 Nov 25;100(24):14357–62, http://pmid.us/14614140. Geesey GG et al. Influence of calcium and other cations on surface adhesion of bacteria and diatoms: a review. Biofouling 2000;15:195–205.

[12] Davis W. Increased blood calcium and vitamin D, June 21, 2010, http://heartscanblog.blogspot.com/2010/06/increased-blood-calcium-and-vitamin-d.html.

[13] Hunt CD, Johnson LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance data from metabolic studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Oct;86(4):1054–63, http://pmid.us/17921384. Hat tip to Steven Hamley: Osteoporosis, April 9, 2012, http://thepaleopremise.blogspot.com/2012/04/osteoporosis.html.

[14] Warensjö E et al. Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2011 May 24;342:d1473, http://pmid.us/21610048.

[15] Pandita KK et al. “Toxic” beef bone soup. Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism 2011 May;8(2):43–4, http://pmid.us/22461816/. Hat tip to Andrea.

[16] Nomura Y et al. Increase in bone mineral density through oral administration of shark gelatin to ovariectomized rats. Nutrition 2005 Nov-Dec;21(11–12):1120–6, http://pmid.us/16308135.

[17] Crowley DC et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2009 Oct 9;6(6):312–21, http://pmid.us/19847319.

[18] Zhang LL et al. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2008 Jul 15;59(7):905–10, http://pmid.us/18576295.

[19] Bruyère O et al. Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2012 Jun;20(3):124–30, http://pmid.us/22500661.

[20] Tanaka M et al. Effects of collagen peptide ingestion on UV-B-induced skin damage. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2009 Apr 23;73(4):930–2, http://pmid.us/19352014.

[21] Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. Journal of Nutrition 2003 Sep;133(9):2879–82, http://pmid.us/12949381. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. In Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997, 190–249, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=190.

[22] Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd, Konner MJ. Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 Apr;51(4):207–16, http://pmid.us/9104571. Hat tip to Emily Deans: Magnesium!, September 30, 2010, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2010/09/magnesium.html.

[23] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. In Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997, 192, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=192.

[24] Ibid., 190–249, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=190.

[25] Ibid., 197, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=197.

[26] Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. Magnesium and aging. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2010;16(7):832–9, http://pmid.us/20388094.

[27] McCoy H, Kenney MA. Interactions between magnesium and vitamin D: possible implications in the immune system. Magnesium Research 1996 Oct;9(3):185–203, http://pmid.us/9140864.

[28] Carpenter TO. Disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and action during clinical and experimental magnesium deficiency. Magnesium Research 1988 Dec;1(3–4):131–9, http://pmid.us/3079418.

[29] Reddy V, Sivakumar B. Magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. The Lancet 1974 May 18;1(7864):963–5, http://pmid.us/4133647.

[30] Costantine MM et al. Effects of antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate on neuroprotection and mortality in preterm infants: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009 Aug;114(2 Pt 1):354–64, http://pmid.us/19622997.

[31] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. In Dietary Reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997, 198, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=198.

[32] Woods KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT–2). The Lancet 1994 Apr 2;343(8901):816–9, http://pmid.us/7908076.

[33] Stepura OB, Martynow AI. Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). International Journal of Cardiology 2009 May 1;134(1):145–7, http://pmid.us/19367681.

[34] Buitrago-Lopez A et al. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2011 Aug 26;343:d4488, http://pmid.us/21875885.

Chapter 33: Zinc and Copper

[1] Mocchegiani E et al. Cu to Zn ratio, physical function, disability, and mortality risk in older elderly (ilSIRENTE study). Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2012 Jun;34(3):539–52. http://pmid.us/21544579.

[2] Bennetts HW et al. Studies on copper deficiency of cattle: the fatal termination (“falling disease”). Australian Veterinary Journal 1942 Apr;18(2):50–63, www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120720447/abstract. Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Copper and cardiovascular disease, April 6, 2010, http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2010/04/copper-and-cardiovascular-disease.html.

[3] Coulson WF, Carnes WH. Cardiovascular studies on copper-deficient swine. V. Histogenesis of the coronary artery lesions. The American Journal of Pathology 1963 Dec;43:945–54, http://pmid.us/14099456.

[4] Klevay LM. Atrial thrombosis, abnormal electrocardiograms and sudden death in mice due to copper deficiency. Atherosclerosis 1985 Feb;54(2):213–24, http://pmid.us/3157387.

[5] Reiser S et al. Role of dietary fructose in the enhancement of mortality and biochemical changes associated with copper deficiency in rats. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983 Aug;38(2):214–22, http://pmid.us/6881079.

[6] Dembinski K et al. Three distinct cases of copper deficiency in hospitalized pediatric patients. Clinical Pediatrics 2012 Aug;51(8):759-62, http://pmid.us/22584540.

[7] Bastian TW et al. Maternal iron supplementation attenuates the impact of perinatal copper deficiency but does not eliminate hypotriiodothyroninemia nor impaired sensorimotor development. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2011 Nov;22(11):1084–90, http://pmid.us/21239157.

[8] Fatemi Naieni F et al. Serum iron, zinc, and copper concentration in premature graying of hair. Biological Trace Element Research 2012 Apr;146(1):30–4, http://pmid.us/21979243. Moon HR et al. Menkes disease—an autopsy case with metal analysis of hair. Journal of Korean Medical Science 1987 Mar;2(1):75–83, http://pmid.us/3269246. Hat tip to Mark Sisson: Dear Mark: dehydrated vegetables, cooked versus raw, and premature graying and copper, www.marksdailyapple.com/dear-mark-dehydrated-vegetables-cooked-versus-raw-and-premature-graying-and-copper/.

[9] Reiser S et al. Indices of copper status in humans consuming a typical American diet containing either fructose or starch. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985 Aug;42(2):242–51, http://pmid.us/4025196.

[10] Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995 Mar;61(3 suppl):621S–624S, http://pmid.us/7879727.

[11] Pang Y et al. A longitudinal investigation of aggregate oral intake of copper. Journal of Nutrition 2001 Aug;131(8):2171–6, http://pmid.us/11481413.

[12] Thomas D. The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940–2002)—a review of the 6th edition of McCance and Widdowson. Nutrition and Health 2007;19(1–2):21–55, http://pmid.us/18309763. Hat tip to Robert Andrew Brown:  http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2010/04/copper-and-cardiovascular-disease.html?showComment=1270632577797#c4682793825446269858.

[13] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Copper. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, 224–257, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=224.

[14] Turnlund JR et al. Long-term high copper intake: effects on indexes of copper status, antioxidant status, and immune function in young men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 Jun;79(6):1037–44, http://pmid.us/15159234.

[15] Brewer GJ. The risks of copper toxicity contributing to cognitive decline in the aging population and to Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2009 Jun;28(3):238–42, http://pmid.us/20150596. Brewer GJ. Risks of copper and iron toxicity during aging in humans. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2010 Feb 15;23(2):319–26, http://pmid.us/19968254.

[16] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zinc. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, 442–501, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=442.

[17] Alissa EM et al. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 2004 Oct;85(5):265–75, http://pmid.us/15379959.

[18] Mocchegiani E et al. Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2012 Jan 6, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/22222917.

[19] Maret W, Sandstead HH. Possible roles of zinc nutriture in the fetal origins of disease. Experimental Gerontology 2008 May;43(5):378–81, http://pmid.us/18031964.

[20] Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. Journal of Nutrition 2000 May;130(5S suppl):1344S–9S, http://pmid.us/10801941.

[21] Epstein MM et al. Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 Mar;93(3):586–93. http://pmid.us/21228268.

[22] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zinc. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, 442–501, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=442.

[23] Leitzmann MF et al. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003 Jul 2;95(13):1004–7, http://pmid.us/12837837.

[24] Klevay LM. Alzheimer’s disease as copper deficiency. Medical Hypotheses 2008;70(4):802–7, http://pmid.us/17928161. Cuajungco MP, Lees GJ. Zinc and Alzheimer’s disease: is there a direct link? Brain Research—Brain Research Reviews 1997 Apr;23(3):219–36, http://pmid.us/9164672.

[25] Taylor DM et al. Tryptophan 32 potentiates aggregation and cytotoxicity of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mutant associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007 Jun 1;282(22):16329–35, http://pmid.us/17389599. Swarup V, Julien JP. ALS pathogenesis: recent insights from genetics and mouse models. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2011 Mar 30;35(2):363–9, http://pmid.us/20728492.

[26] Lulloff SJ et al. Fungal susceptibility to zinc deprivation. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 2004 Oct;144(4):208–14, http://pmid.us/15514589. Sohnle PG et al. Effect of metals on Candida albicans growth in the presence of chemical chelators and human abscess fluid. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 2001 Apr;137(4):284–9, http://pmid.us/11283523.

[27] Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995 Mar;61(3 suppl):621S–624S, http://pmid.us/7879727.

Chapter 34: Vitamin C

[1] Hampl JS et al. Vitamin C deficiency and depletion in the United States: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. The American Journal of Public Health 2004 May;94(5):870–5, http://pmid.us/15117714.

[2] Hill KE et al. Combined selenium and vitamin C deficiency causes cell death in guinea pig skeletal muscle. Nutrition Research 2009 Mar;29(3):213–9, http://pmid.us/19358936.

[3] Levine M et al. A new recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C for healthy young women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001 Aug 14;98(17):9842–6, http://pmid.us/11504949.

[4] Jaminet P. New Zealand man left for dead by doctors, cured by vitamin C, August 26, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=439; Jaminet P. Vitamin C vs modern medicine, September 25, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=619.

[5] Jaminet P. Fighting viral infections by vitamin C at bowel tolerance, September 26, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=636.

[6] Enstrom JE et al. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 1992 May;3(3):194–202, http://pmid.us/1591317.

[7] Osganian SK et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2003 Jul 16;42(2):246–52, http://pmid.us/12875759.

[8] Knekt P et al. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 Dec;80(6):1508–20, http://pmid.us/15585762.

[9] Riordan HD et al. A pilot clinical study of continuous intravenous ascorbate in terminal cancer patients. PR Health Sciences Journal 2005 Dec;24(4):269–76, http://pmid.us/16570523. Hoffer LJ et al. Phase I clinical trial of i.v. ascorbic acid in advanced malignancy. Annals of Oncology 2008 Nov;19(11):1969–74, http://pmid.us/18544557.

[10] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000, 95–185, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309069351&page=95.

[11] Heaney ML et al. Vitamin C antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs. Cancer Research 2008 Oct 1;68(19):8031–8, http://pmid.us/18829561.

Chapter 35: Choline and Folic Acid

[1] Jaminet P. Food fortification: a risky experiment?, March 23, 2012, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/food-fortification-a-risky-experiment/.

[2] Figueiredo JC et al. Folic acid and risk of prostate cancer: results from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2009 Mar 18;101(6):432–5, http://pmid.us/19276452.

[3] Hirsch S et al. Colon cancer in Chile before and after the start of the flour fortification program with folic acid. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2009 Apr;21(4):436–9, http://pmid.us/19190501. Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: Folic acid, January 23 2011, www.mattmetzgar.com/matt_metzgar/2011/01/folic-acid.html.

[4] Kim YI. Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer? Nutrition Reviews 2006 Oct;64(10 Pt 1):468–75, http://pmid.us/17063929.

[5] Ly A et al. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on mammary tumor risk in the offspring. Cancer Research 2011 Feb 1;71(3):988–97, http://pmid.us/21135116.

[6] Ebbing M et al. Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Nov 18;302(19):2119–26, http://pmid.us/19920236.

[7] House AA et al. Effect of B-vitamin therapy on progression of diabetic nephropathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2010 Apr 28;303(16):1603–9, http://pmid.us/20424250.

[8] Haberg SE et al. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2009 Mar;94(3):180–4, http://pmid.us/19052032. Whitrow MJ et al. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Dec 15;170(12):1486–93, http://pmid.us/19880541.

[9] Hollingsworth JW et al. In utero supplementation with methyl donors enhances allergic airway disease in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008 Oct;118(10):3462–9, http://pmid.us/18802477.

[10] Beard CM et al. Is excess folic acid supplementation a risk factor for autism? Medical Hypotheses 2011 Jul;77(1):15–7, http://pmid.us/21454018.

[11] Schmidt RJ et al. Maternal periconceptional folic acid intake and risk of autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) case-control study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012 Jul;96(1):80–9, http://pmid.us/22648721.

[12] Sweeney MR et al. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification? BMC Public Health 2009 Aug 18;9:295, http://pmid.us/19689788.

[13] Junaid MA et al. Folic acid supplementation dysregulates gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells—implications in nutrition. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2011 Sep 9;412(4):688–92, http://pmid.us/21867686.

[14] Hoyo C et al. Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy. Epigenetics 2011 Jul;6(7):928–36, http://pmid.us/21636975.

[15] Waterland RA, Jirtle RL. Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation. Molecular and Cellular Biology 2003 Aug;23(15):5293–300, http://pmid.us/12861015. Wolff GL et al. Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice. The FASEB Journal 1998 Aug;12(11):949–57, http://pmid.us/9707167.

[16] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Choline. In Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998, 390–422, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015&page=390.

[17] Chiuve SE et al. The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Oct;86(4):1073–81, http://pmid.us/17921386.

[18] Jensen HH, Batres-Marques SP, Carriquiry A, Schalinske KL. Choline in the diets of the U.S. Population: NHANES, 2003–2004, Presented at the National Nutrient Data Bank Conference, 2007. Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutrition Reviews 2009 Nov;67(11):615–23, http://pmid.us/19906248. Hat tip to Emily Deans, Zombieland 2 – You Are What You Eat, Mommyblogger Style, January 2, 2011, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2011/01/zombieland-2-you-are-what-you-eat.html.

[19] Veteläinen R et al. Essential pathogenic and metabolic differences in steatosis induced by choline or methione-choline deficient diets in a rat model. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2007 Sep;22(9):1526–33, http://pmid.us/17716355.

[20] Best CH, Huntsman ME. The effect of choline on the liver fat of rats in various states of nutrition. The Journal of Physiology 1935 Feb 9;83(3):255–74, http://pmid.us/16994629.

[21] Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutrition Reviews 2009 Nov;67(11):615–23, http://pmid.us/19906248. Hat tip to Emily Deans: Zombieland 2—you are what you eat, mommyblogger style, January 2, 2011, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2011/01/zombieland-2-you-are-what-you-eat.html.

[22] Detopoulou P et al. Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Feb;87(2):424–30, http://pmid.us/18258634.

[23] Fargnoli JL et al. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with higher circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lower resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses’ Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Nov;88(5):1213–24, http://pmid.us/18996855.

[24] da Costa KA et al. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006 Jul;84(1):88–94, http://pmid.us/16825685.

[25] Xu X et al. High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study. The FASEB Journal 2009 Nov;23(11):4022–8, http://pmid.us/19635752. Xu X et al. Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based study. The FASEB Journal 2008 Jun;22(6):2045–52, http://pmid.us/18230680.

[26] Zeisel SH. The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development. Journal of Pediatrics 2006 Nov;149(5)(suppl):S131–6, http://pmid.us/17212955.

[27] Niculescu MD, Zeisel SH. Diet, methyl donors and DNA methylation: interactions between dietary folate, methionine and choline. Journal of Nutrition 2002 Aug;132(8)(suppl):2333S–2335S, http://pmid.us/12163687.

[28] Thompson SJ et al. Periconceptional multivitamin folic acid use, dietary folate, total folate and risk of neural tube defects in South Carolina. Annals of Epidemiology 2003 Jul;13(6):412–8, http://pmid.us/12875798.

[29] Shaw GM et al. Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population. Epidemiology 2009 Sep;20(5):714–9, http://pmid.us/19593156.

Chapter 36: Other Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutrients

[1] Hanninen SA et al. The prevalence of thiamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006 Jan 17;47(2):354–61, http://pmid.us/16412860.

[2] Mares-Perlman JA et al. Diet and nuclear lens opacities. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995 Feb 15;141(4):322–34, http://pmid.us/7840110.

[3] Keith ME et al. B-vitamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with heart failure. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009 Aug;109(8):1406–10, http://pmid.us/19631047.

[4] Figueiredo JC et al. Vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and risk of new colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial of aspirin use and folic acid supplementation. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2008 Aug;17(8):2136–45, http://pmid.us/18708408.

[5] Keith ME et al. B-vitamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with heart failure. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009 Aug;109(8):1406–10, http://pmid.us/19631047.

[6] Rabbani N et al. High-dose thiamine therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Diabetologia 2009 Feb;52(2):208–12, http://pmid.us/19057893.

[7] Schoenen J et al. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2):466–70, http://pmid.us/9484373.

[8] Debs R et al. Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease in ethnic Europeans with novel SLC19A3 mutations. Archives of Neurology 2010 Jan;67(1):126–30, http://pmid.us/20065143.

[9] Li D et al. Chronic niacin overload may be involved in the increased prevalence of obesity in US children. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 May 21;16(19):2378–87, http://pmid.us/20480523.

[10] Miller ER 3rd et al. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37–46, http://pmid.us/15537682.

[11] Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2005 Mar 16;293(11):1338–47, http://pmid.us/15769967.

[12] Gaziano JM et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Jan 7;301(1):52–62, http://pmid.us/19066368.

[13] Lippman SM et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39–51, http://pmid.us/19066370.

[14] Witting LA. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in determining vitamin E requirement. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1972 Dec 18;203:192–8, http://pmid.us/4572178. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: AJCN publishes a new PUFa study that should make us long for the old days, May 17, 2012, www.westonaprice.org/blogs/cmasterjohn/2012/05/17/ajcn-publishes-a-new-pufa-study-that-should-make-us-long-for-the-old-days/.

[15] Anderson TW et al. Letter: Ischemic heart disease, water hardness and myocardial magnesium. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1975 Aug 9;113(3):199–203, http://pmid.us/1139518.

[16] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinci Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, 197–223, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=197.

[17] Anderson RA et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997 Nov;46(11):1786–91, http://pmid.us/9356027.

[18] Aupperle H et al. Experimental copper deficiency, chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats—pathological findings. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2001;42(3):311–21, http://pmid.us/11887391.

[19] Poljsak B et al. Interference of chromium with biological systems in yeasts and fungi: a review. Journal of Basic Microbiology 2010 Feb;50(1):21–36, http://pmid.us/19810050.

[20] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, 197–223, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=197.

[21] Chromium. Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/chromium/.

[22] Donaldson J et al. Manganese neurotoxicity: a model for free radical mediated neurodegeneration? Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1982 Nov;60(11):1398–405, http://pmid.us/6129921.

[23] Kondakis XG et al. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Archives of Environmental Health 1989 May-Jun;44(3):175–8, http://pmid.us/2751354.

[24] Wasserman GA et al. Water manganese exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006 Jan;114(1):124–9. http://pmid.us/16393669.

[25] Bouchard M et al. Hair manganese and hyperactive behaviors: pilot study of school-age children exposed through tap water. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007 Jan;115(1):122–7, http://pmid.us/17366831.

[26] Powers KM et al. Parkinson’s disease risks associated with dietary iron, manganese, and other nutrient intakes. Neurology 2003 Jun 10;60(11):1761–6, http://pmid.us/12796527.

[27] Newnham RE. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environmental Health Perspectives 1994 Nov;102(suppl 7):83–5, http://pmid.us/7889887.

[28] Penland JG. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environmental Health Perspectives 1994 Nov;102(suppl 7):65–72, http://pmid.us/7889884.

[29] Cui Y et al. Dietary boron intake and prostate cancer risk. Oncology Reports 2004 Apr;11(4):887–92, http://pmid.us/15010890.

[30] Seaborn CD, Nielsen FH. Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transaminase enzyme activity in liver. Biological Trace Element Research 2002 Dec;89(3):251–61, http://pmid.us/12462748.

[31] Jugdaohsingh R et al. Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham Offspring cohort. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004 Feb;19(2):297–307, http://pmid.us/14969400.

[32] Mukherjee B et al. Vanadium—an element of atypical biological significance. Toxicology Letters 2004 Apr 21;150(2):135–43, http://pmid.us/15093669.

[33] Schrauzer GN. Lithium: occurrence, dietary intakes, nutritional essentiality. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2002 Feb;21(1):14–21, http://pmid.us/11838882.

[34] Zarse K et al. Low-dose lithium uptake promotes longevity in humans and metazoans. European Journal of Nutrition 2011 Aug;50(5):387–9, http://pmid.us/21301855.

[35] Broberg K et al. Lithium in drinking water and thyroid function. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011 Jun;119(6):827–30, http://pmid.us/21252007. Hat tip to Emily Deans: Lithium and longevity, February 25, 2011, http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2011/02/lithium-and-longevity.html.

Chapter 37: Micronutrient Recommendations

There are no notes for this chapter.

Chapter 38: The Infectious Origins of Disease

[1] Fujimura KE et al. Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 2010 Apr;8(4):435–54, http://pmid.us/20377338.

[2] Schipani V. Atlas of the atmosphere. The Scientist, December 1, 2010, http://classic.the-scientist.com/news/display/57849/. Jaminet P.“They’ve got us surrounded, February 8, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/02/they%E2%80%99ve-got-us-surrounded/.

[3] Qian J et al. Size-resolved emission rates of airborne bacteria and fungi in an occupied classroom. Indoor Air 2012 Aug;22(4):339–51, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00769.x/abstract.

[4] Akst A. Giant marine virus found, The Scientist, October 25, 2010, http://classic.the-scientist.com/news/display/57776/. Jaminet P. They’ve got us surrounded, February 8, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/02/they%E2%80%99ve-got-us-surrounded/.

[5] Fleisher JM et al. The BEACHES study: health effects and exposures from non-point source microbial contaminants in subtropical recreational marine waters. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010 Oct;39(5):1291–8, http://pmid.us/20522483.

[6] Zhu J et al. Prevalence and persistence of antibodies to herpes viruses, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori in Alaskan Eskimos: the GOCADAN Study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2006 Feb;12(2):118–22, http://pmid.us/16441448.

[7] Tuuminen T et al. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin G and A antibodies in a healthy Finnish population as analyzed by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2000 Sep;7(5):734–8, http://pmid.us/10973446.

[8] Miyashita N et al. Seroepidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Japan between 1991 and 2000. Journal of Clinical Pathology 2002 Feb;55(2):115–7, http://pmid.us/11865005.

[9] Miyashita N. [Chlamydia pneumoniae infections]. Kekkaku 2006 Sep;81(9):581–8, http://pmid.us/17037392.

[10] Ben-Yaakov M et al. Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in an Israeli population without clinical evidence of respiratory infection. Journal of Clinical Pathology 2002 May;55(5):355–8, http://pmid.us/11986341.

[11] Dal Molin G et al. A population based seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in schoolchildren. Journal of Clinical Pathology 2005 Jun;58(6):617–20, http://pmid.us/15917413.

[12] Koh WP et al. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae in Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians in Singapore. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002 Oct;31(5):1001–7, http://pmid.us/12435775.

[13] Sriram S et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology 1999 Jul;46(1):6–14, http://pmid.us/10401775.

[14] Ewald PW. An evolutionary perspective on parasitism as a cause of cancer. Advances in Parasitology 2009;68:21–43, http://pmid.us/19289189.

[15] De Martel C et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. The Lancet Oncology 2012 Jun;13(6):607-15, http://pmid.us/22575588.

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Chapter 39: A Strategy for Immunity

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[13] Brown RR et al. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1991;294:425–35, http://pmid.us/1722946.

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[15] Ganz T. Iron in innate immunity: starve the invaders. Current Opinion in Immunology 2009 Feb;21(1):63–7, http://pmid.us/19231148.

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[18] McDermid JM et al. Elevated iron status strongly predicts mortality in West African adults with HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007 Dec 1;46(4):498–507, http://pmid.us/18077841.

[19] Khan FA et al. Association of hemochromatosis with infectious diseases: expanding spectrum. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007 Nov;11(6):482–7. http://pmid.us/17600748.

[20] Kabyemela ER et al. Decreased susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women with iron deficiency. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008 Jul 15;198(2):163–6, http://pmid.us/18500927. Koka S et al. Iron deficiency influences the course of malaria in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2007 Jun 8;357(3):608–14, http://pmid.us/17445762.

[21] Russ Farris, http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/infection-cortisol/message/3163.

[22] Fernandes G. Progress in nutritional immunology. Immunologic Research 2008;40(3):244–61, http://pmid.us/18253705.

Chapter 40: Fasting

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[2] Orvedahl A, Levine B. Autophagy in mammalian antiviral immunity. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2009;335:267–85, http://pmid.us/19802570.

[3] Mizushima N et al. Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion. Nature 2008 Feb 28;451(7182):1069–75, http://pmid.us/18305538.

[4] Sinha S et al. Molecular basis of the regulation of Beclin 1–dependent autophagy by the gamma-herpesvirus 68 Bcl-2 homolog M11. Autophagy 2008 Nov 16;4(8):989–97, http://pmid.us/18797192.

[5] Chaumorcel M et al. Human cytomegalovirus controls a new autophagy-dependent cellular antiviral defense mechanism. Autophagy 2008 Jan;4(1):46–53, http://pmid.us/20540703.

[6] Itzhaki RF et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease: the autophagy connection. Journal for Neurovirology 2008 Jan;14(1):1–4, http://pmid.us/18300070.

[7] Wozniak MA et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is located within Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaques. The Journal of Pathology 2009 Jan;217(1):131–8, http://pmid.us/18973185.

[8] Belov GA et al. Hijacking components of the cellular secretory pathway for replication of poliovirus RNA. Journal of Virology 2007 Jan;81(2):558–67, http://pmid.us/17079330. Sir D et al. Autophagy by hepatitis B virus and for hepatitis B virus. Autophagy 2010 May 16;6(4), http://pmid.us/20305390. Heaton NS, Randall G. Dengue virus and autophagy. Viruses 2011 Aug;3(8):1332–41, http://pmid.us/21994782. Heaton NS, Randall G. Dengue virus–induced autophagy regulates lipid metabolism. Cell Host & Microbe 2010 Nov 18;8(5):422–32, http://pmid.us/21075353.

[9] Klein KA, Jackson WT. Picornavirus subversion of the autophagy pathway. Viruses 2011 Sep;3(9):1549–61, http://pmid.us/21994795.

[10] Galluzzi L et al. Bacterial invasion: linking autophagy and innate immunity. Current Biology 2010 Feb 9;20(3):R106–8, http://pmid.us/20144769. Brain O et al. NOD2-mediated autophagy and Crohn disease. Autophagy 2010 Apr;6(3):412–4, http://pmid.us/20212355. Brest P et al. Autophagy and Crohn’s disease: at the crossroads of infection, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. Current Molecular Medicine 2010 Jul;10(5):486–502, http://pmid.us/20540703.

[11] Mizushima N et al. Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion. Nature 2008 Feb 28;451(7182):1069–75, http://pmid.us/18305538.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Dziurzynski K et al. Consensus on the role of human cytomegalovirus in glioblastoma.  Neuro-Oncology 2012 Mar;14(3):246–55, http://pmid.us/22319219. Chen HP et al. Human cytomegalovirus preferentially infects the neoplastic epithelium of colorectal cancer: a quantitative and histological analysis. Journal of Clinical Virology 2012 Jul;54(3):240–4, http://pmid.us/22595308.

[14] Sachdeva UM, Thompson CB. Diurnal rhythms of autophagy: implications for cell biology and human disease. Autophagy 2008 Jul;4(5):581–9, http://pmid.us/18437053.

[15] Alirezaei M et al. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy 2010 Aug 16;6(6):702–10, http://pmid.us/20534972.

[16] Mizushima N et al. In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker. Molecular Biology of the Cell 2004 Mar;15(3):1101–11, http://pmid.us/14699058.

[17] Mortimore GE et al. Quantitative correlation between proteolysis and macro- and microautophagy in mouse hepatocytes during starvation and refeeding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1983 Apr;80(8):2179–83, http://pmid.us/6340116.

[18] Pfeifer U, Bertling J. A morphometric study of the inhibition of autophagic degradation during restorative growth of liver cells in rats re-fed after starvation. Virchows Archive B: Cell Pathology 1977 Jun 24;24(2):109–20, http://pmid.us/407706.

[19] Murray MJ et al. Infections during severe primary undernutrition and subsequent refeeding: paradoxical findings. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 1995 Oct;25(5):507–11, http://pmid.us/8588773.

[20] Sachdeva UM, Thompson CB. Diurnal rhythms of autophagy: implications for cell biology and human disease. Autophagy 2008 Jul;4(5):581–9, http://pmid.us/18437053.

[21] Hipkiss AR. On methionine restriction, suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction and aging. Rejuvenation Research 2008 Jun;11(3):685–8, http://pmid.us/18593287.

[22] Finn PF, Dice JF. Ketone bodies stimulate chaperone-mediated autophagy. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005 Jul 8;280(27):25864–70, http://pmid.us/15883160.

[23] Reger MA et al. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. Neurobiology of Aging 2004 Mar;25(3):311–4, http://pmid.us/15123336.

[24] Henderson ST et al. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Nutrition & Metabolism 2009 Aug 10;6:31, http://pmid.us/19664276.

[25] Vellai T. Autophagy genes and ageing. Cell Death & Differentiation 2009 Jan;16(1):94–102, http://pmid.us/19079287. Vellai T et al. The regulation of aging: does autophagy underlie longevity? Trends in Cell Biology 2009 Oct;19(10):487–94, http://pmid.us/19726187.

[26] Carlson AJ, Hoelzel F. Apparent prolongation of the life span of rats by intermittent fasting. Journal of Nutrition 1946 Mar;31:363–75, http://pmid.us/21021020. Hat tip to Mark Sisson: The myriad benefits of intermittent fasting, February 16, 2011, www.marksdailyapple.com/health-benefits-of-intermittent-fasting/.

[27] Varady KA, Hellerstein MK. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Jul;86(1):7–13, http://pmid.us/17616757.

[28] Hatori M et al. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metabolism 2012 Jun 6;15(6):848–60, http://pmid.us/22608008.

[29] Vanhorebeek I et al. Insufficient activation of autophagy allows cellular damage to accumulate in critically ill patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2011 Apr;96(4):E633–45, http://pmid.us/21270330.

[30] Korth J. A huge problem: strength isn’t enough: NFL linemen have to be so big, their health may be at risk. Tampa Bay Times, January 29, 2006, www.sptimes.com/2006/01/29/Sports/A_huge_problem.shtml. Doyel G. NFL is killing its players, and league doesn’t care. CBS Sports, December 23, 2010, www.cbssports.com/nfl/story/14477196/nfl-is-killing-its-players-and-l.

[31] Ritz BW et al. Energy restriction impairs natural killer cell function and increases the severity of influenza infection in young adult male C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Nutrition 2008 Nov;138(11):2269–75, http://pmid.us/18936230.

[32] Mattson MP et al. Energy intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):17-20. http://pmid.us/17114821. Patel BP et al. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS. PLoS One. 2010 Feb 24;5(2):e9386. http://pmid.us/20195368.

[33] Trepanowski JF et al. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings. Nutrition Journal 2011 Oct 7;10:107, http://pmid.us/21981968.

[34] Sarri KO et al. Greek Orthodox fasting rituals: a hidden characteristic of the Mediterranean diet of Crete. British Journal of Nutrition 2004 Aug;92(2):277–84, http://pmid.us/15333159. Trepanowski JF, Bloomer RJ. The impact of religious fasting on human health. Nutrition Journal 2010 Nov 22;9:57, http://pmid.us/21092212.

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Chapter 41: Blood Lipids

[1] Cheung MC et al. Phospholipid transfer protein in human plasma associates with proteins linked to immunity and inflammation. Biochemistry 2010 Aug 31;49(34):7314–22, http://pmid.us/20666409.

[2] Kieft R et al. Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (group 1) resistance to human trypanosome lytic factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010 Sep 14;107(37):16137–16141, http://pmid.us/20805508.

[3] Henning MF et al. Contribution of the C-terminal end of apolipoprotein AI to neutralization of lipopolysaccharide endotoxic effect. Innate Immunity 2011 Feb;17(3):327–37, http://pmid.us/20501516.

[4] Han R. Plasma lipoproteins are important components of the immune system. Microbiology and Immunology 2010 Apr;54(4):246–53, http://pmid.us/20377753.

[5] Pirillo A et al. Modification of HDL3 by mild oxidative stress increases ATP-binding cassette transporter 1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Cardiovascular Research 2007 Aug 1;75(3):566–74, http://pmid.us/17524375.

[6] Gruber M et al. Prognostic impact of plasma lipids in patients with lower respiratory tract infections—an observational study. Swiss Medical Weekly 2009 Mar 21;139(11–12):166–72, http://pmid.us/19330560.

[7] Berbée JF et al. Plasma apolipoprotein CI protects against mortality from infection in old age. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2008 Feb;63(2):122–6, http://pmid.us/18314445.

[8] van Duijnhoven FJ et al. Blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Gut 2011 Aug;60(8):1094-102, http://pmid.us/21383385.

[9] Rahilly-Tierney CR et al. Relation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and survival to age 85 years in men (from the VA Normative Aging Study). American Journal of Cardiology 2011 Apr 15;107(8):1173–7, http://pmid.us/21296318.

[10] Tall AR et al. Metabolic fate of chylomicron phospholipids and apoproteins in the rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1979 Oct;64(4):977–89, http://pmid.us/225354.

[11] Rice BH et al. Ruminant-produced trans-fatty acids raise plasma total and small HDL particle concentrations in male Hartley guinea pigs. Journal of Nutrition 2010 Dec;140(12):2173–9, http://pmid.us/20980644. Mozaffarian D et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: a cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010 Dec 21;153(12):790–9, http://pmid.us/21173413.

[12] Ahmed K et al. GPR109A, GPR109B and GPR81, a family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2009 Nov;30(11):557–62, http://pmid.us/19837462.

[13] Spate-Douglas T, Keyser RE. Exercise intensity: its effect on the high-density lipoprotein profile. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1999 Jun;80(6):691–5, http://pmid.us/10378497.

[14] Costa RR et al. Effects of resistance training on the lipid profile in obese women. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2011 Mar;51(1):169–77, http://pmid.us/21297577.

[15] Yanagibori R et al. The effects of 20 days bed rest on serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations in healthy young subjects. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 1997 Jan;4(1):S82–90, http://pmid.us/11541183.

[16] Lakshman R et al. Is alcohol beneficial or harmful for cardioprotection? Genes & Nutrition 2010 Jun;5(2):111-20, http://pmid.us/20012900.

[17] McConnell MV et al. Effects of a single, daily alcoholic beverage on lipid and hemostatic markers of cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Cardiology 1997 Nov 1;80(9):1226–8, http://pmid.us/9359559.

[18] Thornton J et al. Moderate alcohol intake reduces bile cholesterol saturation and raises HDL cholesterol. The Lancet 1983 Oct 8;2(8354):819–22, http://pmid.us/6137650.

[19] Han R. Plasma lipoproteins are important components of the immune system. Microbiology and Immunology 2010 Apr;54(4):246–53, http://pmid.us/20377753.

[20] See discussions on our blog: Jaminet P. Blood lipids and infectious disease, part I, June 21, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/06/blood-lipids-and-infectious-disease-part-i/. Jaminet P. Blood lipids and infectious disease, part II, July 12, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/07/blood-lipids-and-infectious-disease-part-ii/. Jaminet P. Low serum cholesterol in newborn babies, July 14, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/07/low-serum-cholesterol-in-newborn-babies/. Jaminet P. Serum cholesterol among hunter-gatherers: conclusion, July 7, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/07/serum-cholesterol-among-hunter-gatherers-conclusion/. Jaminet P. HDL: higher is good, but is highest best?, April 14, 2011, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/04/hdl-higher-is-good-but-is-highest-best/. Also, for total serum cholesterol, see Petursson H et al. Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2012 Feb;18(1):159–68, http://pmid.us/21951982.

[21] Vaarhorst AA et al. Lipid metabolism in long-lived families: the Leiden Longevity Study. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2011 Jun;33(2):219–27, http://pmid.us/20811950.

[22] Williams PT. Low high-density lipoprotein 3 reduces the odds of men surviving to age 85 during 53-year follow-up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2012 Mar;60(3):430–6,. http://pmid.us/22329432.

[23] Landi F et al. HDL-cholesterol and physical performance: results from the ageing and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study). Age and Ageing 2007 Sep;36(5):514–20, http://pmid.us/17913756.

[24] Atzmon G et al. Plasma HDL levels highly correlate with cognitive function in exceptional longevity. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2002 Nov;57(11):M712–15, http://pmid.us/12403798.

[25] Mishkel MA. Neonatal plasma lipids as measured in cord blood. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1974 Oct 19; 111(8):775–80, http://pmid.us/4370703.

[26] Isomura H et al. Type of milk feeding affects hematological parameters and serum lipid profile in Japanese infants. Pediatrics International 2011 Dec;53(6):807–13, http://pmid.us/21418403.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Bansal D et al. Role of cholesterol in parasitic infections. Lipids in Health and Disease 2005 May 9;4:10, http://pmid.us/15882457.

[29] Han H et al. Excess iodine and high-fat diet combination modulates lipid profile, thyroid hormone, and hepatic LDLr expression values in mice. Biological Trace Element Research 2012 Jun;147(1–3):233–9, http://pmid.us/22222482.

[30] Grimes DS et al. Sunlight, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. QJM 1996 Aug;89(8):579–89, http://pmid.us/8935479.

[31] Lei KY. Alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations in copper-deficient rats. Journal of Nutrition 1983 Nov;113(11):2178–83, http://pmid.us/6631537. al-Othman AA et al. Copper deficiency alters plasma pool size, percent composition and concentration of lipoprotein components in rats. Journal of Nutrition 1992 Jun;122(6):1199–204, http://pmid.us/1588437.

Chapter 42: Circadian Rhythm Enhancement

[1] Straif K et al. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. The Lancet Oncology 2007 Dec;8(12):1065–6, http://pmid.us/19271347.

[2] Martino TA et al. Circadian rhythm disorganization produces profound cardiovascular and renal disease in hamsters. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2008 May;294(5):R1675–83, http://pmid.us/18272659.

[3] Wang XS et al. Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occupational Medicine 2011 Mar;61(2):78–89, http://pmid.us/21355031. Arble DM et al. Circadian disruption and metabolic disease: findings from animal models. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2010 Oct;24(5):785–800, http://pmid.us/21112026.

[4] Magrini A et al. Shift work and autoimmune thyroid disorders. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4 suppl):31–6, http://pmid.us/17291404.

[5] Summa KC et al. Environmental perturbation of the circadian clock disrupts pregnancy in the mouse. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e37668, http://pmid.us/22649550.

[6] Ando H et al. Impairment of peripheral circadian clocks precedes metabolic abnormalities in ob/ob mice. Endocrinology 2011 Apr;152(4):1347–54, http://pmid.us/21285316.

[7] Hariri N, Thibault L. Dietary obesity caused by a specific circadian eating pattern. Chronobiology International 2011 Apr;28(3):216–228, http://pmid.us/21452917.

[8] Hatori M et al. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metabolism 2012 Jun 6;15(6):848–60, http://pmid.us/22608008.

[9] Haus E, Smolensky MH. Biologic rhythms in the immune system. Chronobiology International 1999 Sep;16(5):581–622, http://pmid.us/10513884. Lange T et al. Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on the human immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2010 Apr;1193:48–59, http://pmid.us/20398008.

[10] Besedovsky L et al. Sleep and immune function. Pflügers Archiv 2012 Jan;463(1):121–37, http://pmid.us/22071480.

[11] Castanon-Cervantes O et al. Dysregulation of inflammatory responses by chronic circadian disruption. The Journal of Immunology 2010 Nov 15;185(10):5796–805, http://pmid.us/20944004.

[12] Silver AC et al. The circadian clock controls toll-like receptor 9-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. Immunity 2012 Feb 24;36(2):251–61, http://pmid.us/22342842. Hat tip to Anahad O’Connor: Really? The claim: your body clock can determine when you get sick. The New York Times, February 27, 2012, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/27/really-the-claim-your-body-clock-can-determine-when-you-get-sick/.

[13] DeCoursey PJ et al. A circadian pacemaker in free-living chipmunks: essential for survival? Journal of Comparative Physiology A 2000 Feb;186(2):169–80, http://pmid.us/10707315.

[14] Turner PL, Mainster MA. Circadian photoreception: ageing and the eye’s important role in systemic health. British Journal of Opththalmology 2008 Nov;92(11):1439–44, http://pmid.us/18757473.

[15] Tarkan L. Aging of eyes is blamed for range of health woes. The New York Times, February 20, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/02/21/health/aging-of-eyes-is-blamed-in-circadian-rhythm-disturbances.html.

[16] Moan J, Juzeniene A. Solar radiation and human health. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 2010 Nov 3;101(2):109–10, http://pmid.us/20833325. Juzeniene A, Moan J. Beneficial effects of UV radiation other than via vitamin D production. Dermato-Endocrinology 2012 Apr–Jun;4(2):1–9, www.landesbioscience.com/journals/dermatoendocrinology/article/20013/. Hat tip to Jamie Scott: Beyond vitamin D: beneficial effects of life under the sun, May 4, 2012, http://thatpaleoguy.com/2012/05/04/beyond-vitamin-d-beneficial-effects-of-life-under-the-sun/.

[17] Gaddameedhi S et al. Control of skin cancer by the circadian rhythm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 Nov 15;108(46):18790–5, http://pmid.us/22025708. Hat tip to Jamie Scott: Sunbathing and circadian rhythms, December 12, 2011, http://thatpaleoguy.com/2011/12/02/sunbathing-and-circadian-rhythms/.

[18] Roberts S. It matters when you take vitamin D: a stunning discovery, November 2, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/02/it-matters-when-you-take-vitamin-d-a-stunning-discovery/. Roberts S. Vitamin D, sunlight, and sleep: more, November 3, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/03/vitamin-d-sunlight-and-sleep-more/. Roberts S. Vitamin D: More reason to take at sunrise, November 28, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/28/vitamin-d-more-reason-to-take-at-sunrise/.

[19] Figueiro MG, Rea MS. Preliminary evidence that light through the eyelids can suppress melatonin and phase shift dim light melatonin onset. BMC Research Notes 2012 May 7;5(1):221, http://pmid.us/22564396.

[20] Gooley JJ et al. Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2011 Mar;96(3):E463–72, http://pmid.us/21193540.

[21] Zeitzer JM et al. Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression. The Journal of Physiology 2000 Aug 1;526 pt 3:695–702, http://pmid.us/10922269.

[22] Kayumov L et al. Blocking low-wavelength light prevents nocturnal melatonin suppression with no adverse effect on performance during simulated shift work. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2005 May;90(5):2755–61, http://pmid.us/15713707.

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[25] Matthews CE et al. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors and cause-specific mortality in US adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012 Feb;95(2):437–45, http://pmid.us/22218159. Hat tip to Gretchen Reynolds: Don’t just sit there, The New York Times, April 28, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/sunday-review/stand-up-for-fitness.html, and Dan Pardi, Buy 1, get 2 free!, May 4, 2012, www.dansplan.com/blog/1501-buy-1-get-2-free.

[26] Veerman JL et al. Television viewing time and reduced life expectancy: a life table analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2011 Aug 15, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/21844603. Hat tip to Gretchen Reynolds: Don’t just sit there, The New York Times, April 28, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/sunday-review/stand-up-for-fitness.html, and Dan Pardi, Buy 1, get 2 free!, May 4, 2012, www.dansplan.com/blog/1501-buy-1-get-2-free.

[27] Greene G. The case for sleep medicine, The New York Times, March 24, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/03/25/opinion/sunday/the-case-for-sleep-medicine.html.

[28] Bollinger T et al. Sleep, immunity, and circadian clocks: a mechanistic model. Gerontology 2010;56(6):574-80, http://pmid.us/20130392.

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[31] Barceló A et al. Telomere shortening in sleep apnea syndrome. Respiratory Medicine 2010 Aug;104(8):1225-9, http://pmid.us/20430605. Selim B et al. Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea. Clinics in Chest Medicine 2010 Jun;31(2):203–220, http://pmid.us/20488282.

[32] Nieto FJ et al. Sleep disordered breathing and cancer mortality: results from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2012 Jul 15;186(2):190-4, http://pmid.us/22610391.

[33] Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2011 Jun 1;305(21):2173–4, http://pmid.us/21632481.

[34] Spiegel K et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on response to immunization. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002 Sep 25;288(12):1471–2, http://pmid.us/12243633.

[35] Spiegel K et al. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004 Dec 7;141(11):846–50, http://pmid.us/15583226.

[36] Martínez-García MA et al. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment reduces mortality in patients with ischemic stroke and obstructive sleep apnea: a 5-year follow-up study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009 Jul 1;180(1):36–41, http://pmid.us/19406983.

[37] Ferrari E et al. Neuroendocrine features in extreme longevity. Experimental Gerontology 2008 Feb;43(2):88–94, http://pmid.us/17764865.

[38] Nassar E et al. Effects of a single dose of N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) and resistance exercise on the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis in young males and females. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007 Oct 23;4:14, http://pmid.us/17956623.

[39] Blask DE et al. Putting cancer to sleep at night: the neuroendocrine/circadian melatonin signal. Endocrine 2005 Jul;27(2):179–88, http://pmid.us/16217131.

[40] Lissoni P et al. Five years survival in metastatic non–small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and melatonin: A randomized trial. Journal of Pineal Research 2003 Aug;35(1):12–5, http://pmid.us/12823608.

[41] Schernhammer ES et al. Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003 Jun 4;95(11):825–8, http://pmid.us/12783938. Feychting M et al. Reduced cancer incidence among the blind. Epidemiology 1998 Sep;9(5):490–4, http://pmid.us/9730026.

[42] Rahman MA et al.Serotonin and melatonin, neurohormones for homeostasis, as novel inhibitors of infections by the intracellular parasite chlamydia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2005 Nov;56(5):861–8, http://pmid.us/16172105.

[43] Sánchez-Barceló EJ et al. Clinical uses of melatonin: evaluation of human trials. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2010;17(19):2070-95, http://pmid.us/20423309.

[44] Seabra ML et al. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial, controlled with placebo, of the toxicology of chronic melatonin treatment. Journal of Pineal Research 2000 Nov;29(4):193–200, http://pmid.us/11068941.

[45] Fuller PM et al. Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science 2008 May 23;320(5879):1074–7, http://pmid.us/18497298.

[46] Sinha MK et al. Nocturnal rise of leptin in lean, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1996 Mar 1;97(5):1344–7, http://pmid.us/8636448. Hat tip to Evelyn Kocur aka CarbSane: 24 hour leptin profiles . . . sleep off your spiked leptinade?, October 16, 2011, http://carbsanity.blogspot.com/2011/10/24-hour-leptin-profiles-sleep-off-your.html.

[47] Romon M et al. Leptin response to carbohydrate or fat meal and association with subsequent satiety and energy intake. American Journal of Physiology 1999 Nov;277(5 Pt 1):E855–61, http://pmid.us/10567012.

[48] Sofer S et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity 2011 Oct;19(10):2006–14, http://pmid.us/21475137. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Carbohydrates past 6PM will make you … lean! eating all carbs in the evening increases body fat loss by 28% compared to standard low-calorie diet, July 16, 2011, http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2011/07/carbohydrates-past-6pm-will-make-you.html.

[49] Roberts S. It matters when you take vitamin d: a stunning discovery, November 2, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/02/it-matters-when-you-take-vitamin-d-a-stunning-discovery/. Roberts S. Vitamin D, sunlight, and sleep: more, November 3, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/03/vitamin-d-sunlight-and-sleep-more/. Roberts S. Vitamin D: More reason to take at sunrise, November 28, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/11/28/vitamin-d-more-reason-to-take-at-sunrise/.

[50] Durup D et al. A reverse j-shaped association of all-cause mortality with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in general practice, the CopD Study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2012 Aug;97(8):2644-52, http://pmid.us/22573406.

[51] Yin L et al. Nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha is a critical lithium-sensitive component of the circadian clock. Science 2006 Feb 17;311(5763):1002–5, http://pmid.us/16484495.

[52] Milhiet V et al. Circadian biomarkers, circadian genes and bipolar disorders. Journal of Physiology—Paris 2011 Dec;105(4–6):183–9, http://pmid.us/21767641.

[53] Roberts S. Morning faces therapy for bipolar disorder, May 16, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/05/16/morning-faces-therapy-for-bipolar-disorder/. Roberts S. Bipolar disorder: good results with blue-blocker glasses, October 23, 2011, http://blog.sethroberts.net/2011/10/23/bipolar-disorder-good-results-with-blue-blocker-glasses/.

[54] Durlach J et al. Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion. Magnesium Research 2002 Mar;15(1–2):49–66, http://pmid.us/12030424. Durlach J et al. Magnesium depletion with hypo- or hyper- function of the biological clock may be involved in chronopathological forms of asthma. Magnesium Research 2005 Mar;18(1):19–34, http://pmid.us/15945613.

[55] Reynolds R. Moderation as the sweet spot for exercise. The New York Times, June 6, 2012, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/06/moderation-as-the-sweet-spot-for-exercise/.

[56] European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Regular jogging shows dramatic increase in life expectancy. ScienceDaily, May 3, 2012, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120503104327.htm.

[57] Wen CP et al. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet 2011 Oct 1;378(9798):1244–53, http://pmid.us/21846575.

[58] Barrientos RM et al. Little exercise, big effects: reversing aging and infection-induced memory deficits, and underlying processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 2011 Aug 10;31(32):11578–86, http://pmid.us/21832188. Hat tip to Austin Malleolo: Exercise and immunity and the brain, August 11, 2011, www.reebokcrossfitone.com/2011/08/11/exercise-and-immunity-and-the-brain/.

[59] Nixon GM et al. Falling asleep: the determinants of sleep latency. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2009 Sep;94(9):686–9, http://pmid.us/19633062. Hat tip to Anahad O’Connor: The claim: exercise more during the day, and you will sleep better at night, The New York Times, November 30, 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/health/01really.html.

[60] King AC et al. Moderate-intensity exercise and self-rated quality of sleep in older adults. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1997 Jan 1;277(1):32–7, http://pmid.us/8980207.

[61] Mitchell R. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments? Social Science & Medicine 2012 May 8, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/22705180.

[62] Vanin S et al. Unexpected features of Drosophila circadian behavioural rhythms under natural conditions. Nature 2012 Apr 4;484(7394):371–5, http://pmid.us/22495312. Scudellari M. Lab studies lie about the clock. The Scientist, April 4, 2012, http://the-scientist.com/2012/04/04/lab-studies-lie-about-the-clock/.

[63] Ballard-Barbash R et al. Physical activity, biomarkers, and disease outcomes in cancer survivors: a systematic review. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2012 Jun 6;104(11):815–40, http://pmid.us/22570317.

[64] Buffart LM et al. Self-reported physical activity: its correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life in a large cohort of colorectal cancer survivors. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e36164, http://pmid.us/22567135/.

[65] Lenzer L. The body can beat terminal cancer—sometimes. Discover Magazine, September 2007, http://discovermagazine.com/2007/sep/the-body-can-stave-off-terminal-cancer-sometimes/.

[66] Zahl PH et al. The natural history of invasive breast cancers detected by screening mammography. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008 Nov 24;168(21):2311-6, http://pmid.us/19029493.

[67] Bouchard C et al. Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence? PLoS One 2012;7(5):e37887, http://pmid.us/22666405.

[68] Hallal PC et al. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet 2012 Jul 12;380(9838):247–257, www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140–6736%2812%2960646-1/abstract.

[69] O’Keefe JH et al. Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2011 May-Jun;53(6):471–9, http://pmid.us/21545934. O’Keefe JH et al. Organic fitness: physical activity consistent with our hunter-gatherer heritage. Physician and Sportsmedicine 2010 Dec;38(4):11–18, http://pmid.us/21150137. O’Keefe JH et al. Achieving hunter-gatherer fitness in the 21(st) century: back to the future. The American Journal of Medicine 2010 Dec;123(12):1082–6, http://pmid.us/20843503.

[70] Walsh NP et al. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise. Exercise Immunology Review 2011;17:6–63, http://pmid.us/21446352.

[71] Simpson RJ. Aging, persistent viral infections, and immunosenescence: can exercise “make space”? Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 2011 Jan;39(1):23–33, http://pmid.us/21088603.

[72] Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Exercise and immune function. Recent developments. Sports Medicine 1999 Feb;27(2):73–80, http://pmid.us/10091272.

[73] Gleeson M. Immune system adaptation in elite athletes. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2006 Nov;9(6):659–65, http://pmid.us/17053416.

[74] Spence L et al. Incidence, etiology, and symptomatology of upper respiratory illness in elite athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2007 Apr;39(4):577–86,. http://pmid.us/17414793.

[75] Amy Acuff is stronger now after having a baby, she says, USA Today, July 17, 2012, www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/london/track/story/2012-07-17/amy-acuff-fifth-olympics-stronger-after-having-baby/56270692/1. Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: No weight training?, July 19, 2012, www.mattmetzgar.com/matt_metzgar/2012/07/no-weight-training.html.

[76] Chen HL et al. Muscle damage protection by low-intensity eccentric contractions remains for 2 weeks but not 3 weeks. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2012 Feb;112(2):555–65, http://pmid.us/21611825. Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Two max. isometric contractions reduce muscle damage and promote regeneration before you even hit the gym! Plus: How to add 0.5 inch to your biceps in 6 minutes!, May 23, 2012, http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2012/05/two-max-isometric-contractions-reduce.html.

[77] Dhabhar FS et al. High-anxious individuals show increased chronic stress burden, decreased protective immunity, and increased cancer progression in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS One 2012;7(4):e33069, http://pmid.us/22558071.

[78] Mavroudis PD et al. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol. Physiological Genomics 2012 Jun 1;44(11):607–21, http://pmid.us/22510707.

[79] Christiansen S et al. Circadian activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is differentially affected in the rat chronic mild stress model of depression. Stress 2012 Nov;15(6):647-57, http://pmid.us/22217141.

[80] Balbo M et al. Impact of sleep and its disturbances on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. International Journal of Endocrinology 2010;2010:759234, http://pmid.us/20628523.

[81] Vgontzas AN et al. Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001 Aug;86(8):3787–94, http://pmid.us/11502812.

[82] Effros RB. Kleemeier Award Lecture 2008—the canary in the coal mine: telomeres and human healthspan. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2009 May;64(5):511–5, http://pmid.us/19228779.

[83] Kinoshita C et al. Chronic stress affects PERIOD2 expression through glycogen synthase kinase–3? phosphorylation in the central clock. NeuroReport 2012 Jan 25;23(2):98–102, http://pmid.us/22158133.

[84] Martarelli D et al. Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011;2011:932430, http://pmid.us/19875429.

[85] Kato K et al. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians. Aging 2012 May;4(5):359–67. http://pmid.us/22626632.

[86] Hummer RA et al. Religious involvement and adult mortality in the United States: review and perspective. Southern Medical Journal 2004 Dec;97(12):1223–30, http://pmid.us/15646761.

[87] Roberts S. “Morning faces therapy for depression and bipolar disorder: resources,” http://blog.sethroberts.net/morning-faces-therapy-resources/.

[88] Ng MY, Wong WS. The differential effects of gratitude and sleep on psychological distress in patients with chronic pain. Journal of Health Psychology 2012 Mar 12, [epub ahead of print] http://pmid.us/22412082.

[89] Danner DD et al. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2001 May;80(5):804–13, http://pmid.us/11374751.

[90] Kato K et al. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians. Aging 2012 May;4(5):359–67, http://pmid.us/22626632. Masui Y et al. Do personality characteristics predict longevity? Findings from the Tokyo Centenarian Study. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2006 Dec;28(4):353–61, http://pmid.us/22253501.

[91] Norman Cousins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Cousins. Hat tip to Russ Farris: http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/infection-cortisol/message/3182.

Chapter 43: Healthful Weight Loss

[1] Hat tip to Adam Ozimek: America’s obesity epidemic: bringing sideshow freaks into the discussion, April 15, 2010, http://modeledbehavior.com/2010/04/15/americas-obesity-epidemic-bringing-sideshow-freaks-into-the-discussion/.

[2] Veteläinen R et al. Essential pathogenic and metabolic differences in steatosis induced by choline or methione-choline deficient diets in a rat model. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2007 Sep;22(9):1526–33, http://pmid.us/17716355.

[3] Bock BC et al. Mineral content of the diet alters sucrose-induced obesity in rats. Physiology & Behavior 1995 Apr;57(4):659–68, http://pmid.us/7777600.

[4] See Jaminet P. Obesity: often an infectious disease, September 22, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=606.

[5] Mann T et al. Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer. American Psychologist 2007 Apr;62(3):220–33. http://pmid.us/17469900.

[6] Caballero B. A nutrition paradox—underweight and obesity in developing countries. The New England Journal of Medicine 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1514–16, http://pmid.us/15829531.

[7] Leibel RL et al. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. The New England Journal of Medicine 1995 Mar 9;332(10):621–8, http://pmid.us/7632212.

Chapter 44: Meal Plans

There are no notes for this chapter.

Perfect Health—for Life

[1] Crimmins EM, Beltrán-Sánchez H. Mortality and morbidity trends: is there compression of morbidity? The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2011 Jan;66(1):75–86. http://pmid.us/21135070.

[2] Mahar M. The State of the Nation’s Health, Dartmouth Medicine, Spring 2007, http://dartmed.dartmouth.edu/spring07/html/atlas.php.

[3] Jaminet P. What makes a centenarian?, August 16, 2010, http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2010/08/what-makes-a-centenarian/.

[4] World’s oldest person dies in L.A. at 115. Associated Press, September 11, 2009, www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32799091/ns/us_news-life/.

[5] Woo E. Edna Parker dies at 115; former teacher was world’s oldest person. Los Angeles Times, November 28, 2008, www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-parker28–2008nov28,0,3824201.story.

[6] Jeanne Calment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Calment.

[7] Leila Denmark. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leila_Denmark.

[8] Brown E. Va. man, 107, finds blessings and burdens in longevity. The Washington Post, July 2, 2009, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/01/AR2009070103861.html.

[9] A few Curly-isms for a long life, July 7, 2007, http://fredericksburg.com/News/FLS/2007/072007/07072007/297776/printer_friendly.

[10] George S. Two-meal diet aids in oldest man’s longevity. USA Today, September 24, 2009, www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-09-24-oldest-man-diet_N.htm.

Errata

These are corrections or clarifications to the text of the book. Deletions or additions are in italic bold.

Page

The Book Reads …

… But Should Read

42

Short-chain fatty acids with even numbers of fatty acids

Short-chain fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms

60

The zoo’s remaining gorillas, Bebac and Mokolo, each lost 65 pounds

The zoo’s remaining gorillas, Bebac and Mokolo, lost 37 and 70 pounds respectively

99

Nearly all the fat-to-glucose conversion

Nearly all the glucose-to-fat conversion

p 173, The Best Fats and Oils

Grade A: Low-omega-6 plant oils: palm oil, macadamia nut oil

Grade B: Moderate-omega-6 plant oils: olive oil, avocado oil, palm oil

Grade A: Low-omega-6 plant oils: macadamia nut oil

Grade B: Moderate-omega-6 plant oils: olive oil, avocado oil, palm oil

p 193

Hormesis may or may not occur from any given food toxin—a review found that only 1 percent of scientific articles showing a dose-response function reported hormesis4—but it is thought that low doses of some toxins stimulate the body’s repair mechanisms, which then proceed to repair other defects.

Hormesis may or may not occur from any given food toxin, but low doses of many toxins may stimulate the body’s repair mechanisms, which then proceed to repair other defects. Hormesis is surprisingly common in biology; a review found that 37 percent of scientific articles showing a dose-response function reported hormesis.4

p 233

We recommend avoiding brown rice because of the phytin, mentioned above, and because rice protein—found primarily in the bran—has been found to provoke an immune response, implying toxicity. No antibodies to rice proteins have ever been identified, however, so it appears that rice toxicity cannot progress to severe disease in the way wheat toxicity can.3

We recommend avoiding brown rice because of the phytin, mentioned above, and because rice protein—found primarily in the bran—has been found to provoke an immune response, implying toxicity.3 No auto-antibodies have been found to be generated by rice protein, however, so it appears that rice toxicity cannot progress to severe disease in the way wheat toxicity can.

299

Vitamin K2 supplementation brings about a fourfold decrease in hip fractures and a fivefold decrease in vertebral fractures.

Vitamin K2 supplementation brings about a fourfold decrease in hip fractures and a fivefold decrease in non-vertebral fractures.

405

Sally Falton Morell

Sally Fallon Morell

Also, some notes in the Kindle edition are incorrect:

Chapter 9 note 22 (cited p 79)

http://voices.yahoo.com/christian-bales-weight-loss-machinist-this–66659.html

http://voices.yahoo.com/christian-bales-weight-loss-machinist-this-66659.html

Chapter 11 note 21 (cited p 115)

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/40/1S2/II–1.short.

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/40/1S2/II-1.

Chapter 24 note 3 (cited p 233)

www.fao.org/inpho/content/documents//vlibrary/t0567e/T0567E0g.htm

www.fao.org/docrep/t0567e/T0567E00.htm

Chapter 30 note 14 (cited p 285)

http://pmid.us/1532515

http://pmid.us/15325150

Chapter 32 note 4 (cited p 299)

Geleijnse JM et al. Dietary Intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. Journal of Nutrition 2004 Nov;134(11):3100–5, http://pmid.us/15514282

Cockayne S et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jun 26;166(12):1256-61. http://pmid.us/16801507

Chapter 41 notes 17 and 18 (cited p 365) are reversed [17] Thornton J et al. Moderate alcohol intake reduces bile cholesterol saturation and raises HDL cholesterol. The Lancet 1983 Oct 8;2(8354):819–22, http://pmid.us/6137650.

[18] McConnell MV et al. Effects of a single, daily alcoholic beverage on lipid and hemostatic markers of cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Cardiology 1997 Nov 1;80(9):1226–8, http://pmid.us/9359559.

[17] McConnell MV et al. Effects of a single, daily alcoholic beverage on lipid and hemostatic markers of cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Cardiology 1997 Nov 1;80(9):1226–8, http://pmid.us/9359559.

[18] Thornton J et al. Moderate alcohol intake reduces bile cholesterol saturation and raises HDL cholesterol. The Lancet 1983 Oct 8;2(8354):819–22, http://pmid.us/6137650.

Chapter 41 note 20 (cited p 366)

http://pmid.us/21951982/.

http://pmid.us/21951982.

Finally, in the Australian edition it appears a few unit conversions were overlooked. Reported places where the American units were not properly replaced (hat tip to Julianne Taylor):

  • Pages 55 and 93: blood glucose is in mg per dl – it should be in mmol/l
  • Page 137: fasting triglyceride is in mg/dl should be mmol/l
  • Page 156 at bottom: total cholesterol is in mg/dl should be mmol/l
  • Page 224 at bottom: 125lb is converted to 11.3kg – should be 56.8
  • Page 265, chapter 29, also page 333: All vit D measures should be in nmol/L not ng/ml
  • Page 362 chapter 41: HDL, LDL and TG mg/dl should be mmol/l

To make the missing conversions, consult these sources:

93 Comments.

  1. Hello Paul:
    I have the 1st edition of your book and thought it was great. Questions:
    1) Is their one source that lists all of the updates to the 2nd edition?
    2) I am a mere MBA who counsels startups with a background in finance and economics. Do you have any recommendations for texts that would get me up to speed on biochemistry? Alternatively, how did you get so educated in this area?
    Thanking you in advance.
    Regards.

    • Hi Gerald,

      I’ll do a blog post shortly on what’s new in the book.

      I wouldn’t recommend textbooks generally, I’d recommend reading Pubmed papers. Just follow your interests, find reviews on topics that interest you. Then hang out on blogs and try to talk to people — or start a blog yourself — and see if you can teach what you’re learning and learn from what others say in response to you.

      In about ten years I’ll write a book on the economics of biology which would be good background for learning about this — but that’s a ways away.

      I got educated by osmosis – I’ve spent most of my life in science and married a biologist – and curiosity. Just followed things that interested me and many trails of bread crumbs later I got where I am.

  2. This is a fantastic resource. I just purchased the kindle version of your new book and was dreading having to look-up each source via the kindle (it’s a pain because it sometimes loses your page) and now i can just keep this page open while i read on my kindle and easily check your sources as i go along. More authors need to do what you’ve done here.

  3. Just found your book but the diet has made dating difficult. Would you consider a section for singles who are looking to connect with someone who is just as committed to making PHD a way of life? You two are so lucky to be of like mind… It’s lonely out here!

    • Hi Judy,

      Well, it’s an idea! In the meantime you could try Paleo meetup groups.

      We are lucky, but in love you have to make your luck. Neither of us ate this way when we married, and we didn’t eat alike at that time either … It’s more important to grow together, than to start together.

      Merry Christmas, Judy, and I hope you find love in the new year!

  4. Hi Paul,

    The book recommends getting TSH ~= 1.0 mIU, but I’m not seeing anything in the references to support that beyond the breech birth study which wouldn’t apply to males. Is there some additional evidence? Also, if fT3, fT4, rT3 are nearer the more active thyroid function portion of the lab range, does, say, TSH=1.5 differ much from TSH=1.0.

    Thanks,
    Mark

    • Hi Mark,

      The science box on p 291 lists several studies, the HUNT study is a notable one (fn 41), those with TSH between 0.5 and 1.4 did much better than those between 1.5 and 2.4. If 1.5 were optimal then you’d expect the two groups to do equally well, so odds are something below 1.5, eg 1.0, is optimal.

      • i notice under the results section of that study, it reads,
        “Overall, thyrotropin levels within the reference range were positively associated with CHD mortality (P for trend = .01); the trend was statistically significant in women (P for trend = .005) but not in men.”

        what do you make of ‘the trend was not statistically significant in men.’

        what was the “difference” between the two trends (women & men) or how did they differ…was there any trend in men…?

  5. Chapter 11 [21] has a bad link. It should be the following:

    http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/40/1S2/II-1

  6. Hi – I just received my copy of the new edition and was surprised to see the reference to the average daily consumption of iodine by the Japanese, given as 1.2 milligrams/day. According to Dr. Guy Abraham, the average daily intake of iodide from seaweed by mainland Japanese is 13.8 mg/day – http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-12/IOD_12.htm.

    Several researchers (Abraham, Brownstein, Flechas) recommend 12.5 mg/day as the optimal dose for full-body sufficiency, so that’s what I take. I followed your recommendations in getting to that level – eliminating wheat first, increasing the dose gradually, and taking the recommended supplements at the same time, notably selenium.

    With respect to TSH testing, there is some doubt to it’s effectiveness as a measurement of thyroid health – http://thyroid.about.com/od/thyroiddrugstreatments/l/blderryb.htm.

    Overall the book is great, I sent copies to my family for Christmas!

    • Hi Leila,

      Well, we prefer to do our citations to the peer-reviewed literature, and the source for the 1.2 mg/day Japanese intake is fn 25 of chapter 30 (http://perfecthealthdiet.com/notes/#Ch30):

      Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 milligrams/day in Japan. Thyroid 2008 Jun;18(6):667–8, http://pmid.us/18578621.

      The paper title contains the main conclusion.

      There are regions of Japan where people get 12.5 mg/day or more. I don’t object to taking that but you do need to be careful to optimize other cofactors (esp selenium).

      Thanks for your thoughts, and for sharing our book!

  7. ❓ Hello. I enjoyed your book. I’m a 45 year old endurance athlete with GERD. Generally I consume around 60 grams of carbs per day and that low level has helped my GERD significantly. For long runs (over 24 miles) I carb load the night before; carb loading for me is adding a potato (and butter) to my steak and green veggie dinner. I have not experienced a decrease in my running potential and am more toned than when I ate high carbs. Your book recommends at least 20% energy intake in carbs. The addition of safe starches for me nightly seems to increase my GERD. Am I at risk in staying a bit lower…10-15% carbs? Also, is there a cite for the statement that low carb dieting can increase the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia (ch. 10). I’m not being critical just questioning, as I’m reassessing my foods and vitamins based on your book.

    • Hi AQ,

      I tend to associate GERD with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or H pylori, often the SIBO is promoted by digestive dysfunction, sometimes nutritional deficiencies contribute. Vitamins D/A/K2, glutathione precursors, vitamin C, B vitamins esp B6 and methyl donors like choline (so eat egg yolks and liver) can help; if it’s a digestive issue betaine hydrochloride with meals, bile, taurine and glycine, and maybe digestive enzymes might help. If carbs exacerbate GERD that may indicate SIBO. Low stomach acid allows oral bacteria, swallowed with saliva, to populate the small intestine and can lead to GERD, thus betaine hydrochloride and extra salt and/or H pylori treatment can help.

      It’s OK to eat 10-15% carbs, but you need more protein and may benefit from extra coconut milk/oil or MCT oil for easier ketone production.

      The hyperglycemia issue is touched on in this post: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/11/safe-starches-symposium-dr-ron-rosedale/

      Best, Paul

  8. Hi,

    I did not find any recerence to acid/alkaline balance in nutrition. Do you consider it is not important?

    • Hi Dani,

      No, I don’t think it’s important because (a) our diet is fairly acid-base balanced as is, (b) the body regulates acid-base balance quite easily as long as you provide enough minerals/electrolytes which we do. In that case the dietary balance affects the acidity of urine but not anything else.

  9. You talk about why we should be eating eggs as many as 3 eggs a day for good nutrition. Dr. Mercola advises eating them raw… That scrambling releases properties leading to poor health. He also advises against eating just the white. Do you agree or disagree with these suggestions. I want to enjoy my food! Can I never have an omelet again? Or egg salad?

    Thanks for all you do! Happy new year to all perfect health dieters!

    Judy

    • Hi Judy,

      The yolks should be eaten, they have the great bulk of the nutrition. It’s fine to eat the whites too, not necessary. But don’t discard yolks.

      I favor gentle cooking of eggs (low heat, boiling, steaming, microwaved after mixing with milk/cream or soup/water). Raw is OK, but I think cooking makes the proteins more digestible and decreases risk of egg sensitivity which is a fairly common issue. It also diminishes risk of salmonella. High heat / harsh cooking can oxidize cholesterol and fragile lipids or cause other damaging reactions.

      We have omelets and egg salad all the time, I don’t see why you should give them up!

  10. Thanks! So hard boiling for egg salad is okay? Poached eggs but not over easy unless the flame is low? How do you make omelets without frying in pan? Is the key just to use gentle heat whatever the cooking style? I use coconut oil and or organic butter in the pan.

    • Hi Judy,

      We do fry in the pan. Over easy is OK. Yes, gentle heat is the key.

      • Here is how we often do eggs:

        Put an aluminum (not plastic) canning funnel in a small saucepan. Run in enough water to almost fill it, then lift it slightly so the water distributes itself in the pan. Cover the pan and heat to boiling.

        Put a scant teaspoon of olive oil or 1/2 teaspoon of red palm oil in a small pyrex glass cup and see that it coats the walls of the cup about 3/4 of the way up; use the back of a spoon if necessary. (Coconut oil does not work as well; the egg tends to stick to the cup.)

        Crack an egg into the cup and place the cup on the canning funnel over the boiling water. Reduce heat, cover, and simmer about five minutes. Exact amount depends on size of egg. You’ll get the timing down pretty quickly.

        Use a fork to tilt the glass cup slightly and use your fingers to quickly transfer the cup to the counter top.

        We like it with the white just coagulated and the yolk still liquid inside. Eating carefully around the edges, you can often eat the yolk last and whole.

        This method is one-at-a-time labor intensive, but the result is delicious!

  11. Hi Paul,

    A couple discrepancies I noticed with these Chapter 41 Blood Lipids citations:

    Drink alcohol in moderation. 16 A beer per day raises HDL levels by 4.4 percent; 17 a half bottle of wine per day raises HDL levels by 17 percent. 18

    Jaminet, Paul; Jaminet, Shou-Ching (2012-12-11). Perfect Health Diet (Kindle Locations 6653-6655). Simon & Schuster, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

    1. In Kindle Edition, clicking on the citation numbers 16, 17, or 18 incorrectly relocates to Chapter 2 notes, as opposed to Chapter 41.

    2. 17 and 18 appear reversed:

    [17] Thornton J et al. Moderate alcohol intake reduces bile cholesterol saturation and raises HDL cholesterol. The Lancet 1983 Oct 8;2(8354):819–22, http://pmid.us/6137650.

    [18] McConnell MV et al. Effects of a single, daily alcoholic beverage on lipid and hemostatic markers of cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Cardiology 1997 Nov 1;80(9):1226–8, http://pmid.us/9359559.

    Thanks,
    Mark

    • Paul,

      I also found the trailing slash on this link needed to be removed, otherwise it results in an invalid search instead of the intended reference.

      [20] See discussions on our blog: Jaminet P.

      Also, for total serum cholesterol, see Petursson H et al. Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2012 Feb;18(1):159–68, http://pmid.us/21951982/.

  12. I was curious about Note 1 from Chapter 3 — I have only just begun to read — so I tracked down the source.

    From via Perfect Health Diet via Stone Age Economics to the source.

    http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/relations/relations_06.html

    search “Chihiné”

  13. Hello Paul,
    I was reviewing this article

    http://globalnaturopath.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=96:brown-rice-vs-white-rice&catid=44:wellness-secrets

    and wanted to send them a message about your statements on white rice vs brown rice.

    However I could not locate the article referred to in Chapter 24
    [2] Juliano BO. Rice in Human Nutrition. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, http://www.fao.org/inpho/content/documents//vlibrary/t0567e/T0567E0g.htm.

  14. Hello Paul,

    I love the new edition of the book.

    Is it possible to get these notes in easily printable PDF format?

    Printing from the web looks like at least 60 pages.

    Thank you.

  15. I’m loving the new edition, but the Kindle edition seems to have a lot of mis-linked citations. When you click them you end up on the first citation of the first chapter. For example, none of the links in chapter 21 point to the right citation. This makes looking up citations with only one device quite laborious 🙁

    Also, I believe that Amazon can send out updates of books, so will there be an update to the Kindle version with errata fixed?

    • Hi Wout,

      There has been an update. As I understand it, Scribner considered the change a major but not critical update (https://kdp.amazon.com/self-publishing/help?topicId=A1RGGPBKDR1BPZ) and so readers have to go to the Manage Your Kindle page on Amazon.com to update the file. Let me know if this works and I’ll do a blog post about it. It should only have affected the earliest buyers. When did you buy your copy?

      • Why I preordered of course 🙂

        I went to the Manage Your Kindle page but didn’t see anything to update the book. It shows as being the December 10 edition and the product page says there was only 1 edition, on December 11.

        Even when I open the book in Amazon Cloud Reader I still see the mis-linking. Should I contact Amazon?

        • Hi Wout,

          I guess I would contact Amazon. Scribner sent me a copy of the updated file and all the links are correct. There should be a way for you to get the update.

          • Hi Paul,

            yes, I had to contact Amazon. With the live chat they were able to send me the update and now everything looks fine. I hope I’m a solitary case…

          • Same problem for me. I purchased the Kindle version on 12/20.

            I also used Amazon chat to get the update. I asked questions to understand why I wasn’t notified of the update and why the update option was not available in Manage Your Kindle, but it didn’t seem they really knew or were doing anything about it (I was even forwarded to a specialist). My sense was they basically just wanted to send me the update and be done with it.

            Interestingly, I had the same issue with another book, so it seems more of a global Amazon issue than something specific to PHD.

            I wouldn’t be surprised if new purchases do not get the updated version. That would be a good test to confirm.

            Note that these changes are major enough that any user highlight and bookmark type annotations will be lost.

  16. The pmid # given in Ch 30 Note 14 is missing a trailing zero. Should be: 15325150

    (Current number goes to an article about catheters.)

  17. Looking at the recommendations for selenium supplements, the three are all different forms(and the one from Thorne seems no longer to be available).

    Given your favorable comment about selenocysteine (p285), perhaps a pure form of that would be optimal?

    Assuming “Se Methyl Selenocysteine” is the same thing as “Selenocysteine”, here is a source:

    http://www.lef.org/Vitamins-Supplements/Item01679/Se-Methyl-L-Selenocysteine.html?source=search&key=selenium%20complex

    Here is another:

    http://www.amazon.com/Life-Extension-Se-methylselenocysteine-Capsules-100-Count/dp/B000JKRE1E/ref=sr_1_1?s=hpc&ie=UTF8&qid=1358786131&sr=1-1&keywords=Se-Methyl+L-Selenocysteine

  18. I search on medium-chain triglyceride and get every note in the book. What kind of crappy search engine are you using?

    • Hi Simon,

      I assume you’re talking about the search engine Amazon has built in to Kindle readers? If you want to search the notes you can also use Ctrl-F on this page.

  19. Paleolithic Cuisine: How Gourmet Was It? | Perfect Health Diet - pingback on February 20, 2013 at 4:47 pm
  20. Dear Shou-Ching Shih and Paul,

    In your book on page 361 you write that fasts should be less than 24 hours. What is your opinion about a longer lasting ketogenic diets in this respect? This assuming that you can see a ketogenic diet also as a kind of fast (starvation).

    VBR
    Hans Keer

    • Hi Hans,

      A well-designed ketogenic diet can be followed life-long. Since “ketogenic” is a positive word – it means that ketones are supplied – it doesn’t necessarily imply or require starvation of any other necessary nutrient.

      There are all sorts of moderate types of fasting which involve some restricted eating. These can be done healthfully for more than one day — it is only total fasting that we recommend not extending to more than 23 hours.

      Best, Paul

      • Hi Paul, Thanks for the quick response. For me ketogenic is a positive word too. You’re totally right, the emphasis is on “well-designed”. VBR Hans.

  21. Hi Paul,

    Here are a few strange observations with the following reference from the Kindle Edition, updated version.

    Here’s a copy-n-paste from the Kindle PC reader:

    17. Lemire, M. et al., “No evidence of selenosis from a selenium-rich diet in the Brazilian Amazon,” Environment International 40 (April 2012): 128– 36, http:// pmid.us/ 21856002. A hat tip to Adel Moussa, http:// perfecthealthdiet.com/ 2012/ 03/ red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/ comment-page– 2/# comment– 68501.

    Jaminet, Paul; Jaminet, Shou-Ching (2012-12-11). Perfect Health Diet (Kindle Locations 12004-12008). Simon & Schuster, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

    1. The http links have spaces in them after the paste and so the pasted text is not directly usable/clickable without deleting the spaces.

    2. Clicking the second link from Kindle PC reader, results in “Error 404 – Not Found” web page and following browser address containing incorrect URL encoding:
    http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/comment-page%E2%80%932/#comment%E2%80%9368501

    3. Removing the spaces from second link in pasted text also results in ” Error 404 – Not Found” web page. It appears the last two hyphens in the web address have been converted to long dashes.

    Removed spaces from pasted text (bad):
    http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/comment-page–2/#comment–68501

    Change last two long dashes to hyphens seems to work (good):
    http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2012/03/red-meat-and-white-rice-oh-my/comment-page-2/#comment-68501

    4. This “Notes to the Book” web page has the problem as #3

    5. The good link from #3 seems to work sporadically. I haven’t been able to reproduce it consistently, but sometimes the correct comment won’t be displayed, or it will be the top of the posting and not the comment section. I think I’ve seen this odd behavior with other comments on PHD web site (note that it isn’t the broken link issues seen after PHD changed to paging comments).

  22. Hello Paul,
    now i`ve got your book and i must say its absolutely readable even for me with my last english lessons in school 28 years ago.
    In chapter 6 you mentioned 3 strategies for limiting overeating (eat until your 80 percent full,intermittant fasting,spoonful of mct oil)
    My grandmother gave me a 4th one.
    Chew your food till its liquid and even chew tasty drinks like alcohole,milk… .
    ” Always drink your food and chew your drinks”.
    This makes little portions big.
    Thanks for this wonderful book.
    Frank

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  25. On your corrections – for page 173 the correction is the same as the mistake… 😥

  26. There’s a typo in the URL of Chapter 9 (protein) reference 23.
    Corrected reference: [23] Kumar V et al. Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 2009 Jun;106(6):2026–39, http://pmid.us/19164770

  27. page 85:

    “15 to 25 grams of fructose per day (assuming 3 to 8 grams of fructose per meal”

    I’m guessing should be:

    “15 to 25 grams of fructose per day (assuming 5 to 8 grams of fructose per meal”

    (I assume that means 30 to 50 grams of sugar)

  28. Good respond in return of this difficulty with solid arguments and explaining all regarding that.

  29. I believe the following reference link may have moved:
    [31] The Vitamin D Council Newsletter, March 9, 2009, http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/index.aspx?o=4830.

    to here:
    http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/newsletter/newsletter-all-things-vitamin-d/

  30. True, there are comedians that cuss a lot, but you got to earn that right before you do that.

    Unfortunately Nora Ephron recently passed away, but she left us with
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  31. Leslie Schwager

    I’m not sure why the notes were left out of the hardback book? It would certainly provide more credibility to be able to access the notes in the book itself. I’ve never seen this done before– to have to go to the website for the notes. Disappointing. I would like to print the notes and insert into my copy which is a pain. Sorry. I do very much like the info you have provided.

    • Leslie Schwager

      Actually, that’s too many pages to print. Do you have a PDF of the notes? I saw one response that you had the notes in a PDF, but I couldn’t seem to access it. Thanks.

    • It is very expensive to publish hard copy (print) books these days which is why so many new authors publish exclusively electronic books. For books that I refer to often, such as PHD, I very much prefer a print edition. I think the idea of putting all the notes & references online is brilliant, saves a huge amount of paper, keeps the production costs of the book down and is actually more efficient.
      I remember reading somewhere that PHD has over 1100 references; if that is so, it’s a good thing they’re all online – the books would be huge & expensive otherwise.

    • Hi Leslie,

      Printing the notes in the books would have added 70 pages by Scribner’s count to an already long book. It is not easy to look up endnotes anyway, and notes on the web site have live links so that is better. Tablets and phones have browsers now so it’s fairly easy to follow along. We thought it was the sensible thing to do. There are about 1200 footnotes and over 1600 papers cited.

      We haven’t made up a PDF, but I suppose we could.

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  33. Hello, I have just bought the Kindle version for my Kindle for PC and find the meal plans are too small to read. Everything else in the book is fine.

  34. Nick Retallack

    The book claims “About 83 percent of the population may have an inflammatory reaction to partially digested wheat gluten.” with this article as a footnote: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1954879/#!po=50.0000

    Where did you get the 83% from? This is not mentioned in the paper. They only found that 6 out of 6 individuals studied fit the pattern.

    • Well, 5 of 6 = 83% had an inflammatory response to the 33-mer gliadin peptide = partially digested gluten. From a small sample it is hard to say what the fraction would be in the general population.

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  36. Heinz Pflieger

    Due to health problems I started to read one book after the other to do with nutrition. I have read very good books but none succeeded in giving me all the information I needed. For me, PHD provides everything one needs to know, to enable me to make my own nutritional choices with confidence. Your book isn’t just a PHD, it is also the Perfect Nutritional Book (PNB). Congratulations! Heinz.

  37. You mention the benefit of sweating to excrete toxins, excess selenium, etc. Is it helpful to rinse the skin after sweating, that is to remove the toxins from the surface of the skin and to avoid re-absorption? For example, if you get sweaty from exercise or other activity several times per week but usually shower much less frequently, e.g. weekly, would it be significantly better to shower or blot sweat whenever you get sweaty?

  38. Some footnotes appear to be missing from the list. I bought the 2013 paperback version of what appears to be the 2012 edition. The “notes for this chapter …” pointers direct me here. However, I was not able to find the notes to Chapter 20 nos. 14–16. Perhaps an oversight?

    On a related note: This book is absolutely amazing. Your effort in amassing the credible literature on nutrition is much appreciated. But the separation of the notes from the text makes reading a pain. Would you consider publishing another version of your work with the notes directly where they belong. I.e. not hidden away as endnotes, but as footnotes appearing on the pages where they are referenced.
    The matter would be much easier to digest (pun intended) without the need for constantly looking up things online. Also, mistakes like missing notes would be detected much earlier. (With modern software it takes a lot of effort to create a footnote reference without supplying the actual footnote.)

    Anyways, thank you both very much for what is probably the most useful and interesting book I’ve read all year.

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  41. Which branched chain amino acids do you recommend?
    We have your book and are going on the ketogenic diet. Thanks for your help. Found all the other foods/supplements and ordered thru your website.
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